The Microwave Processing of Foods

The Microwave Processing of Foods

2nd Edition - November 1, 2016

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  • Editors: M Regier, Kai Knoerzer, Helmar Schubert
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081005286
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081005316

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The Microwave Processing of Foods, Second Edition, has been updated and extended to include the many developments that have taken place over the past 10 years. Including new chapters on microwave assisted frying, microwave assisted microbial inactivation, microwave assisted disinfestation, this book continues to provide the basic principles for microwave technology, while also presenting current and emerging research trends for future use development. Led by an international team of experts, this book will serve as a practical guide for those interested in applying microwave technology.

Key Features

  • Provides thoroughly up-to-date information on the basics of microwaves and microwave heating
  • Discusses the main factors for the successful application of microwaves and the main problems that may arise
  • Includes current and potential future applications for real-world application as well as new research and advances
  • Includes new chapters on microwave-assisted frying, microbial inactivation, and disinfestation


R&D staff, researchers, Product developers, students and university teaching staff

Table of Contents

    • List of contributors
    • About the editors
    • Preface
      • References
    • Woodhead publishing series in food science, technology and nutrition
    • 1. Introducing microwave-assisted processing of food: Fundamentals of the technology
      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 Physical definitions and legislative regulations
      • 1.3 Electromagnetic theory
      • 1.4 General configuration of microwave systems
      • 1.5 Summary
      • 1.6 Nomenclature
      • References
    • 2. Microwave heating and the dielectric properties of foods
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Microwave heating and the dielectric properties of foods (see also Chapter 1: Introducing microwave-assisted processing of food: fundamentals of the technology)
      • 2.3 Microwave interactions with dielectric materials
      • 2.4 Measuring microwave heating
      • 2.5 Microwave heating variables
      • 2.6 Product formulation to optimize microwave heating
      • 2.7 Future trends
      • References
    • 3. Determination of the dielectric properties of foods
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Classification
      • 3.3 Further analysis of dielectric properties
      • 3.4 Summary
      • 3.5 Nomenclature
      • References
    • 4. Impact of microwave processing on nutritional, sensory, and other quality attributes
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Microwave processing of different food matrices
      • 4.3 Superiority of microwaves over conventional heating techniques to preserve food quality
      • 4.4 Future trends
      • 4.5 Conclusions
      • References
    • 5. Microwave technology for food processing: An overview of current and future applications
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Industrially available microwave applicators
      • 5.3 Current food processing applications
      • 5.4 Research and development in novel and future applications
      • References
    • 6. Microwave-assisted baking
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Principles of microwave baking
      • 6.3 Strengths and weaknesses of microwave baking
      • 6.4 Technologies and equipment for microwave-assisted baking
      • 6.5 Applications of microwave-assisted baking to particular foods
      • 6.6 Future trends
      • References
    • 7. Microwave-assisted frying
      • Abstract
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Deep fat frying (deep frying)
      • 7.3 Microwave frying of doughnuts
      • 7.4 Other microwave-assisted frying processes
      • 7.5 The future of microwave-assisted frying in the food industry
      • References
      • Further reading
    • 8. Microwave-assisted drying
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Principles of drying processes
      • 8.3 Specific aspects of MW-assisted drying
      • 8.4 MW in drying processes
      • 8.5 Special quality attributes of microwave-assisted (vacuum) drying
      • 8.6 Microwave drying applied in food industry
      • 8.7 Modeling microwave drying
      • References
    • 9. Microwave-assisted blanching
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Advantages and disadvantages of microwave-assisted blanching
      • 9.3 Case studies/examples of application of microwave-assisted blanching
      • 9.4 Concluding remarks and future trends
      • References
    • 10. Microwave-assisted pasteurization and sterilization—commercial perspective
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Market applications for extended shelf life foods
      • 10.3 Industrial continuous microwave processing systems
      • 10.4 Issues and advantages of microwave-assisted continuous thermal processing
      • 10.5 Conclusions: impacts and prospects for continuous microwave processing of stabilized meals
      • Sources of further information and advice
      • References
    • 11. Microwaves for microbial inactivation—efficiency and inactivation kinetics
      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Principles of microwave inactivation
      • 11.2 Critical process factors influencing microbial inactivation through microwave application
      • 11.3 Inactivation of microorganisms in foods by microwave application
      • 11.4 Mechanism of microwave inactivation of microorganisms
      • 11.5 Application of microwaves in food processing
      • 11.6 Microbial inactivation kinetics
      • 11.7 Microbial validation studies
      • 11.8 Concluding remarks and future trends
      • References
    • 12. Microwave-assisted thawing and tempering
      • Abstract
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Conventional and emerging thawing and tempering approaches
      • 12.3 Electromagnetic-assisted thawing and tempering approaches
      • 12.4 Conclusions and future trends
      • References
    • 13. Packaging for microwave foods
      • Abstract
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Factors affecting temperature distribution in microwaved foods
      • 13.3 Passive containers
      • 13.4 Packaging materials
      • 13.5 Active containers
      • 13.6 Microwave pasteurization of ready meals
      • 13.7 Future trends
      • References
      • Further reading
    • 14. The heating performance of domestic microwave ovens
      • Abstract
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Factors affecting food heating: microwave power output
      • 14.3 Factors affecting food heating: reheating performance
      • 14.4 Food simulant materials for testing oven heating performance
      • 14.5 Methodology for identifying cooking/reheating procedure
      • 14.6 Determining the heating performance characteristics of microwave ovens
      • 14.7 Conclusions and future trends
      • References
    • 15. Measuring temperature distributions during microwave processing
      • Abstract
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Methods of measuring temperature distributions
      • 15.3 Basic principles of different temperature mapping methods
      • 15.4 Experiments and results of MRI study of microwave-induced heating pattern
      • 15.5 Summary
      • References
    • 16. Microwave plant requirements and process control for advanced applications
      • Abstract
      • 16.1 Basic microwave design
      • 16.2 Industrial application
      • References
      • Further reading
    • 17. Improving the heating uniformity in microwave processing
      • Abstract
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Heat distribution and uniformity in microwave processing
      • 17.3 Heating effects related to uniformity
      • 17.4 The role of heating uniformity in some applications
      • 17.5 Modeling and simulation of microwave processes as a tool for improving heating uniformity
      • 17.6 Techniques for improving heating uniformity
      • 17.7 Applications to particular foods/processes
      • 17.8 Future trends
      • 17.9 Sources of further information and advice
      • References
      • Further reading
    • 18. Simulation of microwave processes
      • Abstract
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Review of literature
      • 18.3 Governing physics
      • 18.4 Coupled electromagnetic and thermal models
      • 18.5 Consideration for model development
      • 18.6 Examples of modeling of batch and continuous microwave heating processes
      • 18.7 Future outlooks
      • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 484
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2016
  • Published: November 1, 2016
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081005286
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081005316

About the Editors

M Regier

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Marc Regier studied at the University of Karlsruhe physics before he received his doctorate at the Institute of Food Process Engineering (Prof. Dr.-Ing. Helmar Schubert) in the field of microwave drying of food and provision of water distribution by means of magnetic resonance imaging in 2003. In his time at the Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food (today Max Rubner Institute) he worked among others with the drying, microwave applications and other new methods. After another stay at the Institute of Food Process Engineering, he was in 2007 as Professor of Food Process Engineering at the Technische Fachhochschule Berlin (today Beuth University of Applied Sciences) called from where he moved to the University of Trier in 2010.

As research priorities, Mr. Regier busy drying processes, microwave applications, and magnetic resonance imaging.

In teaching, Mr. Regier represents mathematics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, thermal process engineering as well as new methods of food technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, University of Karlsruhe, Germany

Kai Knoerzer

Dr. Kai Knoerzer has a background in process engineering (BSc), chemical engineering (MSc) and food process engineering (PhD, summa cum laude), all awarded from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). In 2006, he commenced work with Food Science Australia (a joint venture of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and the Victorian Government) as a Postdoctoral fellow. He has since become a Principal Research Scientist in CSIRO Agriculture and Food. Kai has a proven track record in food process engineering research and development, particularly of innovative technologies. Currently, he is leading research and venture science activities across a number of innovative food processing technologies, including high pressure thermal processing and extrusion technology. Kai’s work has shown both science impact, with more than 100 peer-reviewed journal publications, conference proceedings and book chapters, 7 patents/applications, 4 edited books and over 100 oral and 50 poster presentations at national and international conferences, as well as commercial impact in the food industry. His work has also been recognised with various international awards for research excellence. Kai has been an active member of IFT’s International Division in the leadership team for >10 years and is past chair of this division. Kai serves Elsevier's Food Science Reference Collections as the Food Process Engineering section editor.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Research Scientist/Engineer, Food Engineering, CSIRO, Australia

Helmar Schubert

Schubert studied Mechanical and Process Engineering at the TU Berlin and the University of Karlsruhe. In 1972 he was a PhD Chemical Engineering in the field at Hans Rumpf and habilitated there in 1981. Since 1986 until his retirement in April 2004 he held the Chair of Food Process Engineering, and was head of the same institute of the University of Karlsruhe (TH), today KIT.

Schubert was also director of the Institute of Chemical Engineering of the Federal Research Centre for Nutrition in Karlsruhe from 1977 to 1991. Subsequently, he worked from 1982 to 1984 Head of the Federal Research Institutes for Food and GVC-Chairman from 2001 to 2004. In addition, he from 2002 to 2004, Vice-Chairman DECHEMA Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology eV He also led the GVC technical committee "Food Process Engineering" and was a member of the specialist committees "interfaces" and "Agglomerisation- and bulk solids technology".

Schubert is a member in the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences since 2001. He is also a member of the International Academy of Food Science and Technology and the German Academy of Science and Engineering. Helmar Schubert is a founding member of the International Association for Engineering and Food IAEF and since 2004 Chairman of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering EFCE Section on Food. In addition, he has worked as an author. The European.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor at the Department of Food Process Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany

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