The Metallurgy of Nuclear Fuel - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080120737, 9781483186023

The Metallurgy of Nuclear Fuel

1st Edition

Properties and Principles of the Technology of Uranium, Thorium and Plutonium

Authors: V. S. Yemel'Yanov A. I. Yevstyukhin
Editors: J. V. Dunworth
eBook ISBN: 9781483186023
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1969
Page Count: 560
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Description

The Metallurgy of Nuclear Fuel: Properties and Principles of the Technology of Uranium, Thorium and Plutonium is a systematic analysis of the metallurgy of nuclear fuel, with emphasis on the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties as well as the technology of uranium, thorium, and plutonium, together with their alloys and compounds. The minerals and raw material sources of nuclear fuel are discussed, along with the principles of the technology of the raw material processing and the production of the principal compounds, and of the pure metals and alloys. Comprised of three parts, this volume begins with an introduction to the history of the discovery of uranium and its position in the periodic system; its use as a nuclear fuel; radioactivity and isotopic composition; alloys and compounds; and physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The effect of mechanical and thermal treatment, thermal cycling and irradiation on the physicochemical properties of uranium is also examined. The next two sections are devoted to thorium and plutonium and includes chapters dealing with their uses, alloys and compounds, and methods of recovery and purification. This book is written for university students, but should also prove useful to young production engineers and scientific workers who are concerned with problems in the metallurgy of nuclear fuel.

Table of Contents


Preface

Part 1. Uranium

Chapter I. Introduction

§ 1. History of the Discovery of Uranium and its Position in the Periodic System

§ 2. Use of Uranium

§ 3. Uranium as a Nuclear Fuel

§ 4. Radioactivity and Isotopic Composition of Uranium

Chapter II. Physical Properties of Uranium

§ 1. Crystalline Structure of Uranium

§ 2. Density of Uranium

§ 3. Thermodynamic Properties of Uranium

§ 4. The Coefficients of Thermal Expansion of Uranium

§ 5. Elastic Properties of Uranium

§ 6. Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Uranium

Chapter III. Mechanical Properties of Uranium

§ 1. General Characteristics

§ 2. Tensile Properties of Uranium

§ 3. Tensile Strength of Uranium in Endurance Tests

§ 4. Hardness of Uranium

§ 5. Impact Strength of Uranium

Chapter IV. The Effect of Mechanical and Thermal Treatment on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Uranium

§ 1. Compressive Properties of Uranium

§ 2. Plastic Deformation and the Grain Structure of Uranium

§ 3. Heat Treatment of Uranium

§ 4. Recrystallisation of α-Uranium

Chapter V. The Effect of Thermal Cycling and Irradiation on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Uranium

§ 1. Effect of Thermal Cycling

§ 2. The Effect of Irradiation

§ 3. Causes of Irradiation Growth in Uranium

§ 4. Gaseous Swelling of Uranium

§ 5. Mechanical Properties of Uranium During and after Irradiation

Chapter VI. The Chemical Properties of Uranium Metal

§ 1. The Reaction of Uranium with Gases (O2, N2 and H2)

§ 2. Reaction of Uranium with Water and Steam

§ 3. The Reaction of Uranium with Other Gases

§ 4. The Reaction of Uranium with Carbon

§ 5. Reaction of Uranium with Liquid Metals

§ 6. Reaction of Uranium with Element Jackets

Chapter VII. Uranium Alloys

§ 1. General Characteristics and Requirements of Uranium Alloys

§ 2. Uranium as an Alloying Element

§ 3. Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys

§ 4. Uranium-Aluminium Alloys

§ 5. Uranium-Zirconium Alloys

§ 6. Uranium-Fission Fragment Alloys

Chapter VIII. Compounds of Uranium with Oxygen

§ 1. Chemistry of Uranium Compounds

§ 2. Uranium Oxides

§ 3. Uranium Oxide Hydrates

§ 4. Uranium Dioxide as Fuel

§ 5. The Production of UO3 Powders

§ 6. Preparation of Ceramics from UO2 Powders

§ 7. Properties of Sintered UO2

Chapter IX. High-Melting Compounds of Uranium with Carbon, Nitrogen, Silicon, Beryllium, Boron and Sulphur

§ 1. Uranium-Carbon Compounds

§ 2. Compounds of Uranium with Nitrogen

§ 3. Compounds of Uranium with Silicon

§ 4. Compounds of Uranium with Beryllium

§ 5. Compounds of Uranium with Boron

§ 6. Compounds of Uranium with Sulphur

Chapter X. Compounds of Uranium with Fluorine

§ 1. Uranium Tetrafluoride

§ 2. Complex Compounds of UF4

§ 3. Uranium Hexafluoride

Chapter XI. Uranium Ores and Deposits

§ 1. Uranium in the Earth's Crust

§ 2. Uranium Minerals

§ 3. Uranium Deposits

§ 4. Technological Grades of Uranium Ores

Chapter XII. Methods of Concentrating Uranium Ores

§ 1. Choice of the Method of Concentration

§ 2. Crushing and Grinding of the Ore

§ 3. Leaching of Uranium Ores

§ 4. Recovery of Uranium from Solutions

§ 5. Composition of Uranium Ore Concentrates

Chapter XIII. Methods of Purifying Uranium Ore Concentrates

§ 1. Purity Requirements of Uranium and Choice of Purification Method

§ 2. Precipitation Methods

§ 3. Extraction Methods of Purifying Uranium

Chapter XIV. Industrial Methods of Obtaining UO2, UF4 and UF6

§ 1. The Production of UO2

§ 2. Production of UF4

§ 3. Production of UF6

Chapter XV. Methods of Producing Uranium Metal

§ 1. Brief Historical Data

§ 2. Fundamental Data of the Metallothermy of Uranium

§ 3. Reduction of UF4 by Calcium

§ 4. Reduction of UF4 by Magnesium

§ 5. Reduction of UO2 by Calcium and Magnesium

§ 6. Electrolytic Method of Obtaining Uranium

Chapter XVI. Refining and Processing of Uranium

§ 1. Vacuum Refining and Casting of Uranium

§ 2. Working of Uranium by Compression and Cutting

§ 3. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium

§ 4. The Production of Uranium Alloys

Part 2. Thorium

Chapter I. Thorium Metal

§ 1. History of the Discovery of Thorium and its Position in the Periodic System

§ 2. Thorium as a Nuclear Fuel

§ 3. Other Fields of Application of Thorium and its Production Scales

§ 4. Radioactivity and Isotopic Composition of Thorium

§ 5. Physical Properties of Thorium

§ 6. Mechanical Properties of Thorium

§ 7. Chemical Properties of Thorium

Chapter II. Important Alloys and Compounds of Thorium

§1. Thorium Alloys 355

§ 2. Thorium Dioxide 360

§ 3. Thorium Carbides, Nitrides and Sulphides 364

§ 4. Halide Compounds of Thorium 368

Chapter III. Raw Material Resources and Processing of Thorium Ores

§ 1. Distribution of Thorium in Nature and its Minerals

§ 2. Deposits, Resources and Mining of Thorium

§ 3. Concentration of Monazite

Chapter IV. Processing of Monazite Concentrates

§ 1. Sulphate Method of Treating the Monazite Concentrate

§ 2. Alkali Method of Treating Monazite

§ 3. Separation of the Hydroxides of Thorium and the Rare Earth Elements

Chapter V. Preparation of Pure Thorium Compounds

§ 1. Method of Fractional Neutralisation

§ 2. Method of Precipitation of Hydrated Thorium Sulphate

§ 3. Method of Precipitation of Binary Thorium Sulphates

§ 4. Methods of Oxalate Purification of Thorium

§ 5. Methods of Extraction Purification of Thorium

Chapter VI. Methods of Obtaining Thorium Metal

§ 1. Metallothermic Methods

§ 2. Electrolytic Methods

§ 3. Iodide Method of Refining Thorium

Chapter VII. Methods of Working Thorium and the Preparation of Objects

§ 1. Powder Metallurgy of Thorium

§ 2. Melting and Casting of Thorium

§ 3. Working of Thorium Under Pressure

Part 3. Plutonium

Chapter I. Plutonium Metal

§ 1. Brief History of the Discovery of Plutonium and the Transuranic Elements

§ 2. Nuclear Properties of Plutonium as a Fuel

§ 3. Comparison of Plutonium with Uranium Fuel

§ 4. Physical Properties of Plutonium

§ 5. Chemical Properties of Plutonium Metal

§ 6. Chemical Properties of Plutonium Ions in Solutions

Chapter II. Alloys and Compounds of Plutonium

§ 1. Behaviour of Plutonium on Alloying

§ 2. Metallic Fuel

§ 3. Oxide Fuel

§ 4. Carbide Fuel

Chapter III. Methods of Recovering and Purifying Plutonium

§ 1. Basic Methods of Reprocessing Irradiated Fuel

§ 2. Precipitation Systems of Separating and Purifying Uranium and Plutonium

§ 3. Extraction Systems of Separating and Purifying Uranium and Plutonium by Organic Solvents

§ 4. Conditions of the Dry Methods of Separating and Purifying Uranium and Plutonium

Chapter IV. Methods of Obtaining Plutonium Metal from Salts and the Regeneration of the Slags Obtained Thereby

§ 1. Reduction of Plutonium Compounds to the Metal

§ 2. Apparatus and Technology

§ 3. Metal Purity

§ 4. Methods of Working Plutonium

§ 5. Regeneration of Plutonium from Waste

Literature

Index

Part 1. Uranium

Part 2. Thorium

Part 3. Plutonium

Details

No. of pages:
560
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1969
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483186023

About the Author

V. S. Yemel'Yanov

A. I. Yevstyukhin

About the Editor

J. V. Dunworth