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The Metallogeny of Lode Gold Deposits - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128032220, 9780128032237

The Metallogeny of Lode Gold Deposits

1st Edition

A Syngenetic Perspective

Authors: Ulrich Kretschmar Derek McBride
Paperback ISBN: 9780128032220
eBook ISBN: 9780128032237
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 24th November 2015
Page Count: 350
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The Metallogeny of Lode Gold Deposits: A Syngenetic Perspective is a synthesis of lode gold vein forming processes, addressing the commonality in similar worldwide deposits. The book’s empirical model incorporates widely known and accepted principles of ore deposition and shows how it applies in the volcanic-sedimentary greenstone belt environment. Several chapters detail outcrop maps and photos of field occurrences and textures.

The interpretations flow directly from the authors’ field work, and are coupled with analyses of underlying physical processes. Utilizing detailed geological mapping, field work, and chemical analyses as the basis of a syngenetic formation mode, the text arms readers with the tools necessary to accurately analyze and interpret new data on the subject. This includes information on decoding the significance of asymmetry in vein formation, as well as the role of lamprophyres in gold camps, how Archean geology requires integration into a lode vein formation model, and how to develop an understanding of the worldwide applicability of gold cycles to lode vein formation and exploration and how it can be applied to deposits of all ages.

Key Features

  • Presents the first book to galvanize lode gold research into a single authoritative reference
  • Simplifies the complexity of lode gold’s underlying processes and presents valid concepts surrounding the lode gold forming environment
  • Features color figures, illustrations, and photos that enrich the content’s focus and aid in the retention of key concepts


Geoscientists, particularly mineralogists with a focus on gold, exploration geologists, and petrologists

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Historical Perspective on Gold Formation Models

  • 1.1. Models in General
  • 1.2. Classification of Deposits and Gold Formation Models
  • 1.3. “Shear Zones” and the Role of Structure in Lode Vein Models
  • 1.4. Syngenetic Gold Formation Concepts
  • 1.5. So Why Bother?

Chapter 2. Interpreting Textures in Outcrop

  • 2.1. Reading the Rocks
  • 2.2. Is the Texture Primary or Secondary?
  • 2.3. The Effect of Deformation
  • 2.4. Textures from Volcanic and Felsic-Hosted Lode Veins
  • 2.5. Discussion

Chapter 3. Introduction to Gold Cycles

  • 3.1. Provisional Definitions: Quartz Units and the Gold Cycle
  • 3.2. Examples from the Literature

Chapter 4. Field Examinations in a Variety of Gold Settings in Canada: The Meguma, Nova Scotia; Chester Twp and Beardmore, Ontario; Maskwa, Manitoba, and Nugget Pond, Newfoundland

  • 4.1. Meguma and Turbidite-Hosted Gold
  • 4.2. Gold in Greenstone Belts
  • 4.3. The Geology of Chester Township
  • 4.4. Gold Veins in the Maskwa Complex, Manitoba
  • 4.5. Beardmore Area Investigations

Chapter 5. Why Lamprophyres Have No Role in Lode Vein Genesis

  • 5.1. Lamprophyres in Gold Camps
  • 5.2. The “Two Lamps” Outcrop, Lamprophyres and GCE in Chester Twp
  • 5.3. Lamprophyres from Other Gold Camps
  • 5.4. Discussion of Lamprophyres and GCE
  • 5.5. Conclusions

Chapter 6. Felsic Volcanism Associated with Mineralization in the Chester Complex–Type Gold Deposits

  • 6.1. Geology of the Chester Complex
  • 6.2. Mineralization
  • 6.3. Toward a Model for Felsic-Hosted Gold Deposits Based on Chester Twp Geology and Mineralization
  • 6.4. Discussion of Chester Twp Volcanism and Comparison with the Noranda Camp

Chapter 7. Understanding Hydrothermal Systems

  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. The “Rosetta Vein”
  • 7.3. Brief Introduction to Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems
  • 7.4. How Sulphidation Equilibria, Geothermometers, or Geobarometers Help to Understand the Gold-Mineralizing Environment
  • 7.5. Quartz
  • 7.6. Gold Chemistry
  • 7.7. Carbon (Graphite) and What It Says about the Depositional Environment of Gold Deposits
  • 7.8. Summary of P-T-x Conditions for Vein Formation
  • 7.9. Quartz Forming during Deformation
  • 7.10. The Significance of Younger Vein Age Dates
  • 7.11. Discussion

Chapter 8. The Role of Structural Geology and Remobilization

  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Folds and Cleavage
  • 8.3. Cleavage and Its Relationship to the Character of the Precursor Rocks
  • 8.4. What Is a Shear Zone?
  • 8.5. The Realities of Remobilization
  • 8.6. Structural Geology and Mining Economics versus Geological Continuity
  • 8.7. Summary

Chapter 9. Lode Gold Deposits: Their Geometry and Evidence for Seafloor Vent Systems

  • 9.1. Background for Syngenetic Models of Lode Gold Deposits
  • 9.2. Summary of Evidence for a Predominantly Syngenetic Formation Mode for Lode Vein Deposits
  • 9.3. Examples of Canadian Stratabound Gold Deposits, Geometry and Spacing from Geological Plans and Sections

Chapter 10. Toward a Syngenetic Model and Vent Geometry

  • 10.1. Regional Trends and Their Reinterpretation
  • 10.2. Schematic Models of Lode Vein Forming Environment
  • 10.3. A Syngenetic Model for Formation of Lode Vein Deposits
  • 10.4. Lode Gold Deposit Classification
  • 10.5. Observations to Aid Exploration Applications
  • 10.6. Area Selection
  • 10.7. The Nonboring Billions
  • 10.8. Tonalite, Trondhjemite, Granodiorite Suite Lithologies as Targets: Extrusive or Intrusive?
  • 10.9. “Shear Zones” and Faults
  • 10.10. A Syngenetic Classification of Lode Deposits and Prospects
  • 10.11. Using the Syngenetic Model for Target Selection

Chapter 11. Comparisons, Conclusions, Suggestions for Further Work and Application of the Syngenetic Model

  • 11.1. Introduction
  • 11.2. Analysis and Comparison to Epigenetic Concepts
  • 11.3. Distribution of Deposits through Time
  • 11.4. Furthering Syngenetic Concepts
  • 11.5. The State of Current Lode Deposit Research
  • 11.6. Concluding Statement
  • 11.7. The Proof Is in the Success of the Model in Its Positive Application


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2015
24th November 2015
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

Ulrich Kretschmar

Ulrich Kretschmar, PhD was President of Golden Scarab Corporation in Ontario, Canada before he passed away in 2014. He was a mineral exploration geologist by both trade and education, earning his PhD from McGill University and his MSc and BSc from McMaster University. He held a professional geologist accreditation from the Association of Professional Geologists in Ontario. His research focused on gold and ore forming processes and how to translate and interpret them into practical, readily understood concepts for ore deposit exploration. Dr. Kretschmar authored or contributed to more than 50 journal articles.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Golden Scarab Corporation, Canada

Derek McBride

Derek McBride, PhD, PEng graduated from the Haileybury School of Mines with a diploma in mining technology. His studies continued and he obtained B.Sc. and M.Sc. Degrees in geological engineering from Queen’s University and a Ph.D. in geology from the University of New Brunswick. He has taught at St. Francis Xavier University and for the last 39 years has worked throughout the world in mineral exploration. He is credited with the discovery of the Nugget Pond Gold Mine in Newfoundland, Canada. His work has taken him to 17 countries and he has managed major exploration programs in five of them. He continues to consult internationally.

Affiliations and Expertise

Consulting Geologist, Canada


"... primarily for specialists in gold exploration and will certainly be of considerable interest to them. The production quality is excellent. It is well organized, clearly written, supported by many clear diagrams, photographs and tables…" --The Leading Edge

"…encompasses all aspects of gold deposit formation and subsequent deformation…evidence is presented that shows the lode gold deposits were deformed by the initial regional deformation that produced the present steep dips."--Canadian Mining Journal

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