The Mammary Gland / Human Lactation / Milk Synthesis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124367043, 9781483269481

The Mammary Gland / Human Lactation / Milk Synthesis

1st Edition

Editors: Bruce L. Larson
eBook ISBN: 9781483269481
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1978
Page Count: 614
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Description

Lactation: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume IV, The Mammary Gland/Human Lactation/Milk Synthesis, forms the fourth in a series. When the first three volumes were published in 1974, publication of future volumes was not contemplated. However, the gratifying acceptance by the scientific community and the continuation of rapid advances in lactation, have provided the impetus for the continuation of the series. The present volume is concerned with general aspects of the mammary gland, human lactation, and mechanisms of milk synthesis.
The volume is divided into three main parts. Part I covers some aspects of the mammary gland and lactation not discussed in the first three volumes and expands on others. Topics discussed include the development of the mammary apparatus and neuroendocrine control of lactation. Part II is devoted to more specific consideration of human lactation as a whole. It includes studies on breast feeding and the breast cancer process. Part III on milk synthesis deals with the mechanisms of milk synthesis; enzymology and control of lactose biosynthesis; molecular aspects of milk protein biosynthesis; and ion and water transport in the mammary gland.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Contents of other Volumes

Part I. The Mammary Gland

Chapter One / Embryonic and Fetal Development of the Mammary Apparatus

I. Introduction

II. Structures in Sequential Development of the Mammary Apparatus

III. Variations in Mammary Structures

IV. Abnormalities

V. Conclusions

References

Chapter Two / Cell Contacts in the Mammary Gland

I. Introduction

II. Surface Differentiation in Transporting Epithelium

III. Lactating Mammary Gland as a Transporting Epithelium

IV. Junctional Modifications at Parturition: Structure and Significance

V. Cell Contacts in Neoplastic Mammary Tissue and in Cell Culture

VI. Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter Three / Neuroendocrine Control of Lactation

I. Introduction

II. Innervation of the Mammary Gland

III. Suckling and Maternal Behavior

IV. Milk Removal

V. Milk Secretion

VI. Conclusions

References

Chapter Four / Involution of the Mammary Gland

I. Introduction

II. Histological Features of Mammary Gland Involution

III. Changes in Levels of Nucleic Acids

IV. Physiology, Biochemistry, and Endocrinology of Involution

V. The Removal of Milk Constituents

VI. Immunologic Considerations

VII. Effect of Involution on Subsequent Lactation

VIII. Summary and Conclusions

References

Part II. Human Lactation

Chapter Five / Human Lactation and Breast Feeding

I. Introduction

II. Morphology of the Mature Female Breast

III. Hormonal and Biochemical Changes during Pregnancy

IV. Hormonal Control of Lactation

V. Biochemistry of Milk Synthesis and Cellular Mechanisms of Milk Release

VI. Composition of Breast Milk and Its Relation to the Nutritive Requirements of the Newborn

VII. Feeding the Newborn: Value of Breast Milk

VIII. Breast Involution Postlactation

IX. Drug Excretion in Breast Milk

X. Suppression of Lactation

XI. Return of Fertility in Lactating and Nonlactating Puerperas

XII. Galactorrhea: Inappropriate Lactation

References

Chapter Six / Primate Lactogenic Hormones and Functions

I. Introduction

II. The Isolation of Subhuman and Primate Lactogenic Hormones

III. Chemical Structure—Biological Relationships between Pituitary and Placental Lactogens, and Pituitary Growth Hormone

IV. Functions during Pregnancy

V. Pituitary Prolactin Functions during Normal Lactation

VI. Prolactin Effects on Ovarian Function

VII. Pathological Physiology and Galactorrhea

VIII. Prolactin and Mammary Carcinoma

IX. Possible Role of Prolactin in Male Reproduction

X. Summary

References

Chapter Seven / Lactation and the Breast Cancer Process

I. Introduction

II. Incidence and Age Distribution

III. Disease Process

IV. Special Aspects of Breast Cancer

V. Lactation and Breast Cancer

VI. Benign Breast Disease

VII. Breast Feeding and Breast Cancer

References

Chapter Eight / The Immunologie Role of Viable Leukocytic Cells in Mammary Exosecretions

I. Introduction

II. The Cellular Composition of Colostrum and Milk

III. In Vitro Functional Reactivities of Colostral and Milk Cells

IV. Experimental Evidence of Maternal to Neonatal Transplantation of Milk Lymphocytes

V. Evidence for Survival of Maternal Milk Lymphoid Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Infant

VI. The Possible Significance of Milk Leukocytes to the Suckling Neonate

VII. Summary

References

Part III. Milk Synthesis

Chapter Nine / Mechanisms of Milk Synthesis—Progress and Projections

I. Introduction

II. Research Areas

III. Projections

References

Chapter Ten / Lactose Biosynthesis

I. Introduction

II. Enzymology of Lactose Biosynthesis

III. Control of Lactose Biosynthesis

IV. Summary

References

Chapter Eleven / Molecular Aspects of Milk Protein Biosynthesis

I. Introduction

II. Isolation and Characterization of Milk Protein mRNA Species

III. Molecular Events Which Determine the Intracellular Site of Milk Protein Synthesis

IV. Summary

References

Chapter Twelve / Endomembrane Composition and Function in Milk Formation

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Cell Fractionation

III. Composition of Mammary Endomembranes

IV. Topological Orientation of Membrane Constituents

V. Role of Microtubules in Milk Secretion

VI. Membrane Interconversions in Relation to Milk Secretion

VII. Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter Thirteen / Ion and Water Transport in the Mammary Gland

I. Introduction

II. Pathways and Mechanisms of Monovalent Ion Movements

III. Mechanisms of Complex Ion Movements

IV. Pathways and Mechanisms of Ion Movements in Different Physiological Conditions

V. Variations among Species

VI. Effects of Disease

VII. Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter Fourteen / Calcium Transport in Lactation

I. Introduction

II. Calcium Distribution and Associations

III. Cellular Expulsion

IV. Other Transport Phenomena

V. Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter Fifteen / Phospholipid Synthesis in the Mammary Gland

I. Introduction

II. Phospholipid Content and Composition of Milk and Mammary Tissue

III. Origin of Phospholipids

IV. Synthesis and Metabolism of 1,2-Diacyl-sn-Glycerol 3-Phosphate (Phosphatidic Acid)

V. Synthesis of and Utilization of Cytidine 5'Diphosphate-O-l,2-Diacyl-sn-Glycerol

VI. Synthesis of Phosphatidylcholine and Phosphatidylethanolamine

VII. Sphingomyelin Synthesis

VIII. Metabolism and Function of Phospholipids

IX. Conclusion

References

Chapter Sixteen / The Mitochondria of the Mammary Parenchymal Cell in Relation to the Pregnancy-Lactation Cycle

I. Introduction

II. Species Differences

III. Mitochondrial Replication

IV. Mitochondrial Turnover

V. Mitochondrial Maturation or Differentiation

VI. Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter Seventeen / Nucleotides of Mammary Secretions

I. Introduction

II. Nucleotides of Mammary Gland

III. Comparative Aspects of Nucleotides in the Colostrum and Milk of Various Species

IV. Summary

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
614
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1978
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483269481

About the Editor

Bruce L. Larson