The Mammalian Spinal Cord

The Mammalian Spinal Cord

1st Edition - December 22, 2021

Write a review

  • Authors: Charles Watson, Gulgun Sengul, George Paxinos
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128141472
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128141465

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (PDF, EPub)
In Stock
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


The Mammalian Spinal Cord provides a comprehensive account of the anatomy and histology of the spinal cord. The text covers the cytoarchitecture, chemoarchitecture, motor neuron distribution, long tracts, autonomic outflow, and gene expression in the spinal cord. A feature of the book is the inclusion of segment-by-segment atlases of the spinal cords of rat, mouse, newborn mouse, marmoset, rhesus monkey, and human. This book is an essential reference for researchers studying the spinal cord.

Key Features

  • Includes full-color photographic images of Nissl-stained sections from every spinal cord segment in each of two rodent and three primate species, over 160 Nissl plates
  • Contains comprehensively labeled diagrams to accompany each Nissl-stained section, over 160 diagrams
  • Provides more than 500 photographic images of sections stained for AChE, ChAT, parvalbumin, NADPH- diaphorase, calretinin, or other markers to supplement the Nissl-stained images


Researchers and graduate students in neuroscience, neuroanatomy, and neurophysiology; clinical neurologists, neuroradiologists

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Reproduction of figures
  • Contributors
  • Dedication
  • Chapter 1: Organization of the spinal cord
  • The gross anatomy of the spinal cord
  • Segments based on spinal nerve exit patterns
  • Spinal nerves
  • Gray and white matter
  • White matter of the spinal cord
  • Gray matter of the spinal cord
  • Meninges
  • Blood supply
  • Hox gene expression
  • Chapter 2: Development of the spinal cord
  • From epiblast to neural tube
  • Neural crest development
  • Alar and basal plates and their derivatives
  • Segmentation of the developing spinal cord
  • Motor neuron development and cell death
  • Development of spinal cord afferents and dorsal horn interneurons
  • Development of glia in the spinal cord
  • Development of major ascending and descending tracts
  • Myelination of spinal cord pathways
  • Relative growth of the spinal cord and vertebral column
  • Chapter 3: The vertebral column and spinal meninges
  • The vertebral column
  • The spinal meninges
  • Chapter 4: Spinal nerves
  • Ventral roots
  • Dorsal roots
  • Dorsal root ganglia
  • Dorsal rami of spinal nerves in humans
  • Ventral rami of spinal nerves in humans
  • Dermatomes
  • Segmental motor distribution
  • Chapter 5: Primary afferent projections to the spinal cord
  • Dorsolateral fasciculus (Lissauer’s tract)
  • Somatotopic arrangement of primary afferent projections
  • Terminations of primary afferent projections in the spinal cord
  • Chapter 6: Cytoarchitecture of the spinal cord
  • The laminae of Rexed
  • Spinal cord nuclei
  • Chapter 7: Motor neurons of the spinal cord
  • Somatic motor neuron columns
  • Experimental methods used to study musculotopic organization of motor neurons
  • Motor neuron groups supplying the muscles of the limbs and trunk
  • Chapter 8: Preganglionic neurons
  • The autonomic nervous system—Parasympathetic and sympathetic elements
  • Preganglionic neurons in thoracic and lumbar spinal segments—The sympathetic outflow
  • Sacral preganglionic neurons
  • Summary
  • Chapter 9: Projections from the spinal cord to the brain
  • Ascending spinal projections in the dorsal funiculus
  • Ascending spinal projections in the ventrolateral funiculus
  • Other spinal cord projections to the hindbrain
  • Spinal cord projections to telencephalon
  • Projections from the spinal cord to the cerebellum
  • Chapter 10: Projections from the brain to the spinal cord
  • The corticospinal tract
  • Spinal projections from forebrain areas other than the cerebral cortex
  • Spinal projecting neurons in the midbrain
  • Spinal projecting neurons in the hindbrain
  • Chapter 11: Pattern generators of the vertebrate spinal cord
  • Patterning in movement
  • Locomotion
  • Quadruped and biped locomotion
  • Putting it together: Models of CPG modular organization
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 12: Spinal cord transmitter substances
  • Cholinergic neurons
  • Substance P
  • Noradrenergic projections to the spinal cord
  • Serotonergic projections from the raphe nuclei
  • Dopaminergic projections to the spinal cord
  • Chapter 13: Gene expression in the newborn and adult mouse spinal cord
  • Gene expression categories defined by cytoarchitecture
  • Expression in gray matter of the mouse spinal cord
  • Expression in white matter of the mouse spinal cord
  • Expression in vascular-like cells
  • Chapter 14: Spinal cord imaging
  • CT and PET/CT imaging
  • MRI
  • Diffusion tensor imaging
  • Diffusion-weighted imaging
  • Functional MRI
  • CLARITY technique
  • Chapter 15: The cyclostome spinal cord
  • Evolutionary aspects
  • Sensory neurons and ascending pathways
  • Motor neurons
  • Interneurons of the lamprey spinal cord
  • Reticulospinal, 5-HT, and peptidergic projections to the spinal cord
  • Types of synaptic transmission—Neurotransmitters and modulators
  • Concluding remarks—Evolutionary conservation
  • Atlas of the lamprey spinal cord
  • Chapter 16: Atlas of the rat spinal cord
  • Methods
  • Nomenclature and abbreviations
  • Basis of delineation of structures
  • Identification of regions and segments of the spinal cord
  • Chapter 17: Atlas of the mouse spinal cord
  • Methods
  • Basis of delineation of structures
  • Figures
  • Chapter 18: Atlas of the newborn mouse spinal cord
  • Methods
  • Differences between the newborn and adult mouse spinal cords
  • Figures
  • Chapter 19: Atlas of the marmoset spinal cord
  • Methods
  • Chapter 20: Atlas of the rhesus monkey spinal cord
  • Methods
  • Chapter 21: Atlas of the human spinal cord
  • Methods
  • Basis of delineation of structures

Product details

  • No. of pages: 674
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: December 22, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128141472
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128141465

About the Authors

Charles Watson

Charles Watson is a neuroscientist and public health physician. His qualifications included a medical degree (MBBS) and two research doctorates (MD and DSc). He is Professor Emeritus at Curtin University, and holds adjunct professorial research positions at the University of New South Wales, the University of Queensland, and the University of Western Australia. He has published over 100 refereed journal articles and 40 book chapters, and has co-authored over 25 books on brain and spinal cord anatomy. The Paxinos Watson rat brain atlas has been cited over 80,000 times. His current research is focused on the comparative anatomy of the hippocampus and the claustrum. He was awarded the degree of Doctor of Science by the University of Sydney in 2012 and received the Distinguished Achievement Award of the Australasian Society for Neuroscience in 2018.

Affiliations and Expertise

John Curtin Distinguished Professor of Health Science, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia and Neuroscience Research Australia, NSW Sydney, Australia

Gulgun Sengul

Gulgun Sengul
Dr Gulgun Sengul, MD is a specialist in the anatomy of the spinal cord and brainstem, with a particular interest in pain pathways. Dr Sengul co-authored 'The Spinal Cord: A Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation Text and Atlas' published by Elsevier in 2009. Dr Sengul was first author of the 'Atlas of the Spinal Cord of the Rat, Mouse, Marmoset, Rhesus, and Human' published by Elsevier in 2013. This latter book includes the first published atlases of the spinal cord of the marmoset and rhesus monkeys and the first diagrammatic and cytoarchitectonic atlas of the human spinal cord. Dr Sengul also contributed to the Allen Spinal Cord Atlas and brainstem part of the BrainSpan Atlas of the Developing Human Brain projects. The rodent and primate atlases produced by Dr Sengul and her colleagues provide an important platform for future spinal cord research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Anatomy, Ege University School of Medicine, Turkey

George Paxinos

George Paxinos
Professor George Paxinos, AO (BA, MA, PhD, DSc) completed his BA at The University of California at Berkeley, his PhD at McGill University, and spent a postdoctoral year at Yale University. He is the author of almost 50 books on the structure of the brain of humans and experimental animals, including The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates, now in its 7th Edition, which is ranked by Thomson ISI as one of the 50 most cited items in the Web of Science. Dr. Paxinos paved the way for future neuroscience research by being the first to produce a three-dimensional (stereotaxic) framework for placement of electrodes and injections in the brain of experimental animals, which is now used as an international standard. He was a member of the first International Consortium for Brain Mapping, a UCLA based consortium that received the top ranking and was funded by the NIMH led Human Brain Project. Dr. Paxinos has been honored with more than nine distinguished awards throughout his years of research, including: The Warner Brown Memorial Prize (University of California at Berkeley, 1968), The Walter Burfitt Prize (1992), The Award for Excellence in Publishing in Medical Science (Assoc Amer Publishers, 1999), The Ramaciotti Medal for Excellence in Biomedical Research (2001), The Alexander von Humbolt Foundation Prize (Germany 2004), and more.

Affiliations and Expertise

Neuroscience Research Australia and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "The Mammalian Spinal Cord"