The Lung

The Lung

Development, Aging and the Environment

2nd Edition - October 23, 2014

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  • Editors: Kent Pinkerton, Richard Harding
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780127999418
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128002889

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The second edition of The Lung: Development, Aging and the Environment provides an understanding of the multi-faceted nature of lung development, aging, and how the environment influences these processes. As an essential resource to respiratory, pulmonary, and thoracic scientists and physicians it provides an interface between the “normal” and “disease” cluster of chapters, allowing for a natural complement to each other. The interface between different lung diseases affecting the pediatric lung also adds a useful source for comparing how different lung diseases share key pathophysiological features. This same complementarity comes across in the logical line up of chapters dealing with the “normal” pediatric lung.  New research, including cell-based strategies for infant lung function, epigenetics, and prenatal alcohol exposure on lung development and function are some of the important additions to this edition of this reference work.

Key Features

  • Describes the normal processes of lung development, growth and aging
  • Considers the effects of the environmental contaminants in the air, water, soil, and diet on lung development, growth and health
  • Describes genetic factors involved in susceptibility to lung disease
  • Covers respiratory health risk in children


Respiratory, pulmonary, thoracic scientists and physicians

Table of Contents

    • Introduction
    • Part I. Critical Events in Normal Development and Aging
      • Chapter 1. Lung Progenitor Cell Specification and Morphogenesis
        • Introduction
        • Onset of Lung Development
        • Branching Morphogenesis
        • Establishment of Proximal-Distal Cell Fate and Differentiation
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 2. Development of Airway Epithelium
        • Introduction
        • Differences in Phenotypic Expression in Adults
        • Overall Development of Airways
        • Submucosal Glands
        • Epithelial Differentiation
        • Regulation of Differentiation
      • Chapter 3. Development of the Innervation of the Lower Airways: Structure and Function
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy, Morphology, and Distribution in the Prenatal Lung
        • Anatomy, Morphology, and Distribution in the Postnatal Lung
        • Ontogeny and Reflex Control of Airway Smooth Muscle: Functional Consequences
        • Muscarinic Receptors in the Lung
      • Chapter 4. The Formation of Pulmonary Alveoli
        • Introduction
        • Stages of Lung Development
        • Paracrine Signaling to Epithelial Cells
        • Development of the Alveolar Interstitium
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 5. Pulmonary Vascular Development
        • Introduction
        • Cellular Basis of Vessel Morphogenesis
        • Development (Formation and Growth) of Endothelial Channels
        • Development of Vascular Mural Cells
        • Cell–Cell Signaling: Endothelial/Mural Cell Development
        • Embryonic and Fetal Vascular Development
        • Postnatal Vascular Development and Growth
        • Vascular Growth and Reorganization in the Adult
        • Vessell Wall Reorganization in Aging
        • Failure to Develop the Normal Quota of Vascular Units and a Functionally “Normal” Lung
      • Chapter 6. Developmental Physiology of the Pulmonary Circulation
        • Introduction
        • Lung Vascular Growth
        • Control of The Ductus Arteriosus
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 7. Development of Salt and Water Transport across Airway and Alveolar Epithelia
        • Transport Processes Underlying Secretion and Absorption across Pulmonary Epithelia
        • Cellular Basis of Secretion and Absorption
        • Intact Adult Lung
        • Cultures of Adult Type II Cells
        • Intact Fetal Lung
        • Fetal Lung Explants
        • Cultures of Fetal Alveolar Type II Cells
        • Adult Airway Epithelium
        • Fetal and Newborn Airway Epithelium
        • Perinatal Absorption of Liquid
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 8. Physical, Endocrine, and Growth Factors in Lung Development
        • Introduction
        • Role of Physical Factors in Regulating Fetal Lung Development
        • Mechanotransduction Mechanisms
        • Role of Growth Factors in Lung Development
        • Circulating Factors and Metabolic Influences on Lung Development
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 9. The Development of the Pulmonary Surfactant System
        • Introduction
        • Assembly and Release of Surfactant
        • Composition of Pulmonary Surfactant
        • Functions of the Surfactant Film
        • Functions of the Pulmonary Surfactant System
        • Regulation of Surfactant Secretion
        • Development of the Pulmonary Surfactant System
        • Surfactant Deficiency Leading to Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 10. Ontogeny of the Pulmonary Immune System
        • Introduction
        • Postnatal Maturation of Systemic Immunity
        • Postnatal Maturation of Pulmonary Mucosal Immunity
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 11. Development of Antioxidant and Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Systems
        • Importance of Antioxidants and Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes
        • Development of Antioxidant Enzyme Systems
        • Development of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Systems
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 12. Stretch and Grow: Mechanical Forces in Compensatory Lung Growth
        • Introduction
        • Tissue and Mechanical Forces in Lung Development
        • Mechanical Forces Following Pneumonectomy
        • Post-Pneumonectomy Compensatory Response
        • Manipulating Mechanical Signals in Compensatory Lung Growth
        • Compensatory Airway Growth, Remodeling, and Function
        • Regulatory Patterns During Developmental and Compensatory Growth
        • Amplifying Compensatory Lung Growth
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 13. Pulmonary Transition at Birth
        • Introduction
        • Fetal Lung Maturation, Glucocorticoids, and Birth
        • Airway Liquid Clearance Before Birth
        • Lung Liquid Clearance at Birth
        • Airway Liquid Clearance After Birth
        • The Physiological Consequences of Lung Aeration
        • Changes in Pulmonary Blood Flow at Birth
        • Dynamic Changes in the Ductus Arteriosus at Birth
        • Fetal Breathing and the Onset of Continuous Breathing at Birth
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 14. Normal Aging of the Lung
        • Introduction
        • Aging, Body Mass, and the Lungs in Mammals
        • Life Span Characteristics of the Mouse
        • Life Span Characteristics of the Rat
        • General Characteristics of the Lungs in Aging Dogs
        • General Characteristics of the Lungs in Aging Rhesus Monkey
        • Overall Conclusions
      • Chapter 15. Cell-Based Strategies for the Treatment of Injury to the Developing Lung
        • Introduction
        • Endogenous Lung Stem/Progenitor Cells
        • Therapeutic Potential Of Stem Cells for Neonatal Lung Injury
        • From Bench to Bedside: Clinical Trials in Preterm Infants with BPD
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 16. Epigenetics and the Developmental Origins of Lung Disease
        • Introduction
        • Human Evidence for the Developmental Origins of Lung Disease
        • Lessons from Animal Studies
        • Epigenetics in the Developmental Origins of Lung Disease
        • Epigenetics in the Developmental Origins of Lung Disease
        • Future Perspectives
        • Conclusions
    • Part II. Environmental Influences on Lung Development and Aging
      • Chapter 17. Pulmonary Consequences of Preterm Birth
        • Introduction
        • Causes and Adverse Outcomes of Preterm Birth
        • Preterm Birth as an Environmental Influence on Lung Development
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 18. The Effects of Neonatal Hyperoxia on Lung Development
        • Introduction
        • Preterm Birth
        • Effects of Neonatal Hyperoxia on Lung Development
        • Mechanisms of Altered Lung Development
        • Influence of Hyperoxia on Susceptibility to Infection
        • Potential Therapies
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 19. The Influence of Nutrition on Lung Development before and after Birth
        • Introduction
        • Causes of Restricted Fetal Nutrition and Growth
        • Association between IUGR, Genes, and Long-term Health Outcomes
        • Programming Effects of Growth Restriction on Lung Function and Respiratory Health: Human Data
        • Effects of Nutrient Restriction on the Developing Lung: Experimental Findings
        • Elastin
        • Collagen
        • Proteoglycans
        • Effects of Hypoxia on Lung Development
        • Role of Micronutrients in Lung Development
        • Nutritional Restriction and the Mature Lung
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 20. Genetic Factors Involved in Susceptibility to Lung Disease
        • Introduction
        • Research Strategies Employed to Identify Candidate Disease Susceptibility Genes
        • Genetic Susceptibilty to Environmental Stimuli
        • Genetic Susceptiblity to Acute Lung Injury
        • Genetic Susceptibility to Infection
        • Genetic Susceptibility to Occupational Lung Disease
        • Contribution of Nutrition in Genetic Susceptiblity to Lung Disease
        • Summary
      • Chapter 21. Effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke during Early Life Stages
        • Introduction
        • Conditions of Early Life ETS Exposure
        • Critical Life Stages and ETS
        • Effects of Prenatal and Postnatal Smoke Exposure on the Development of Disease Later in Life
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 22. Nicotine Exposure during Early Development: Effects on the Lung
        • Introduction
        • Uptake of Nicotine
        • Nicotine and Cell Signaling: Apoptosis and Lung Development
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 23. Exposure to Allergens during Development
        • Introduction
        • Influence of in Utero Exposure to Allergens on Development of the Atopic Phenotype
        • Neonatal Exposure to Allergens
        • Exposure to Allergens during the Juvenile Period
        • Interaction of Allergens with Environmental Factors during Development
        • Summary
      • Chapter 24. The Epidemiology of Air Pollution and Childhood Lung Diseases
        • Introduction
        • Ambient Air Pollution
        • Air Pollution and Asthma
        • Air Pollution and Bronchitis, Bronchiolitis
        • Air Pollution and Lung Diseases: the Modifying Factors
        • Gene-By-Environment Interaction and Lung Diseases
      • Chapter 25. Environmental Toxicants and Lung Development in Experimental Models
        • Environmental Tobacco Smoke
        • Bioactivated Compounds
        • Oxidant Gases
        • Corticosteroids
        • Miscellaneous Compounds
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 26. Effect of Environment and Aging on the Pulmonary Surfactant System
        • Introduction
        • Effect of the Intrauterine Environment on the Developing Pulmonary Surfactant System
        • Effects of Environmental Factors on the Adult Pulmonary Surfactant System
        • Natural Aging Effects on the Pulmonary Surfactant System
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 27. Environmental Determinants of Lung Aging
        • Introduction
        • Factors that Influence Susceptibility of the Aging Lung to Disease
        • Susceptibility of the Aging Lung to Environmental Injury
        • Non-Neoplastic Diseases of the Lung Associated With Aging
        • Conclusions and Future Directions
    • Index
    • Color Plates

Product details

  • No. of pages: 544
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: October 23, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780127999418
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128002889

About the Editors

Kent Pinkerton

Kent Pinkerton, MD, is professor of pediatrics, School of Medicine, and director of the Center for Health and the Environment at the University of California, Davis. His research focuses on the health effects of inhaled environmental air pollutants to alter respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological structure and function. Special areas of interest include the interaction of gases and airborne particles to produce cellular and structural changes within site-specific regions and cells of the respiratory tract in both acute and chronic timeframes of exposure. Recent studies have focused on environmental and biological impacts of synthesized nanomaterials as well as the effects of environmental tobacco smoke and combustion particles on lung growth and development. He is associate director for the San Joaquin Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC) to study airborne particles of the San Joaquin Valley. He is also the associate director for the Western Center for Agricultural Health and Safety (WCAHS) to study the health effects of airborne particles in an agricultural setting.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, USA

Richard Harding

Richard Harding is a NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellow and an Emeritus Professor with the Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology at Monash University, Australia. His research focuses on Respiratory Development and Programming. He is now semi-retired.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Australia

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