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The Lichens - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120449507, 9780323143097

The Lichens

1st Edition

Editor: Vernon Ahmadijian
eBook ISBN: 9780323143097
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1974
Page Count: 712
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The Lichens covers the structure and development, physiology of the intact thallus, environmental response and effects, secondary metabolic products, and symbiont interactions of lichens. This book is divided into five parts encompassing 19 chapters. It also includes appendices consist of a taxonomic scheme, methods for isolating and culturing lichen symbionts and thalli, and methods for isolating and identifying lichen substances. The first part of this book describes the original fungal cell and its development into specialized cells of which the various tissues and thalli are composed. This is followed by discussions on sexual reproduction of ascolichens and basidiolichens and on systematic criteria for the definition of taxa in different hierarchical steps. This book also explains the types of propagules produced by lichens and the submicroscopical investigations of lichens, including phycobiont and mycobionts' substructure and symbiotic relationship. The second part of this book examines the physiological aspects of lichens. It includes discussions on metal cation uptake and translocation in vascular plants and on lichens' role in rock weathering and soil formation. This part also studies photosynthetic rates and nitrogen absorption and metabolism by the intact thallus of lichens. Succeeding chapters discuss physiological and morphological responses of lichens to the most important environmental factors and the relationship of these factors to lichen distribution. Substrate preferences of lichens and their causes and implications with regard to the ecology, distribution, and taxonomy of lichens are also examined. This text also discusses lichen thalli growth, methods of measurement, and factors influencing growth. Finally, the concluding parts deal with the biosynthesis of lichen substances, secondary metabolic products, and symbiotic relations of lichens to fungi and algae. This multi-authored book is an ideal source of information for researchers, teachers, and students who wish to broaden their knowledge in the diversity of lichenology.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Part I Structure and Development

Chapter 1. Anatomy, Morphology, and Development

I. Introduction

II. Anatomy of the Thallus

III. Morphology of the Thallus

IV. Vegetative Structures and Their Development

V. Influence of Fungus and Alga on the Habit of the Lichen

VI. Influence of Fruiting Bodies on the Development of Thallus Tissues


Chapter 2. Sexual Reproduction

I. Ascolichens

II. Basidiolichens


Chapter 3. Systematic Evaluation of Morphological Characters

I. Introduction

II. Systematic Criteria

III. Modifiability and Its Taxonomic Significance


Chapter 4. Lichen Propagules

I. Introduction

II. Vegetative Propagules

III. Sexual Propagules


Chapter 5. Fine Structure

I. Introduction

II. Cellular Structure of the Lichenized Symbionts

III. Symbiotic Relationship between Fungus and Alga

IV. Thallus Layers and Surface Structures as Viewed with SEM

V. Some Aspects of Changes in Ultrastructure Due to Ecological Conditions

VI. Conclusions


Part II Physiology of the Intact Thallus

Chapter 6. Absorption and Accumulation of Mineral Elements and Radioactive Nuclides

I. Introduction

II. Metal Content of Lichens

III. Concentration and Retention of Radionuclides

IV. Uptake and Translocation of Cations


Chapter 7. Pedogenetic Significance of Lichens

I. Introduction

II. Biogeophysical Weathering

III. Biogeochemical Weathering

IV. Plant Succession and Soil Development

V. Conclusions


Chapter 8. Photosynthesis and Carbohydrate Movement

I. Introduction

II. Photosynthesis by the Intact Lichen

III. Interactions between Lichen Symbionts

IV. The Mobile Carbohydrate and Its Release

V. Fate of the Transferred Carbohydrate

VI. Carbohydrate Movement between the Symbionts

VII. Conclusions


Chapter 9. Nitrogen Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Chemical and Biochemical Analyses of Whole Thalli

III. Assimilation of Combined Nitrogen

IV. Fixation of Elementary Nitrogen

V. Translocation of Nitrogen Compounds between the Symbionts

VI. The Relationship of Lichens to Other Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiotic Systems


Part III Environmental Response and Effects

Chapter 10. Response to Extreme Environments

I. Introduction

II. Determination of Viability and Resistance

III. Responses to Environmental Stresses

IV. Extreme Habitats of Lichens

V. Conclusions


Chapter 11. Water Relations

I. Introduction

II. Water Absorption

III. Mechanism of Water Absorption and Water Conduction to the Thallus

IV. Water Contents of Thalli

V. Water Loss

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 12. Substrate Ecology

I. Introduction

II. Practical Aspects

III. Substrate Factors

IV. The Lichen-Substrate Interface

V. The Effect of Lichens on Their Substrate

VI. Substrate Specificity

VII. Substrates and Speciation

VIII. Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 13. Lichens and Air Pollution

I. Historical

II. Lichen Deserts

III. Causes of Lichen Deserts

IV. Effect of Environment

V. Biological Estimation of Air Pollution


Chapter 14. Growth

I. Introduction

II. Techniques of Measuring Growth

III. Growth Rates and Life History

IV. Conclusions


Part IV Secondary Metabolic Products

Chapter 15. Nature of Lichen Substances

I. Introduction

II. Structure of Lichen Substances


Chapter 16. Biosynthesis of Lichen Substances

I. Introduction

II. Biosynthesis

III. Conclusion: The State of the Problem


Chapter 17. Antibiotics in Lichens

I. Folklore

II. Pharmacopoeias

III. Lichen Substances

IV. Pharmacological Studies

V. Antibiotics in Lichens


Part V Symbiont Interactions

Chapter 18. Resynthesis of Lichens

V. Ahmadjian

I. Introduction

II. Developmental Stages of Synthesis

III. Physiological Relationships between the Symbionts

IV. Lichens Synthesized in Laboratory Cultures

V. Factors that Influence Synthesis

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 19. Evolutionary Aspects of Symbiosis

I. Introduction

II. Symbiosis in Retrospect

III. Symbiosis Achieved

IV. Symbiosis in Prospect


Appendix A. Classification

I. Early Lichen System

II. Parasitic Lichens, Parasymbionts, and Lichen Parasites

III. Lichenized and Nonlichenized Fungi

IV. Taxomomic Categories in Lichenology

V. Proposed Classification: Ascolichens

VI. Proposed Classification: Basidiolichens

VII. Lichenes Imperfecti


Appendix B. Identification and Isolation of Lichen Substances

I. Identification without Previous Isolation

II. Isolation

III. Identification after Previous Isolation


Appendix C. Methods of Isolating and Culturing Lichen Symbionts and Thalli

I. Fungal Symbiont

II. Algal Symbiont

III. Lichen Thallus


Author Index

Taxonomic Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1973
28th January 1974
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Vernon Ahmadijian

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