The Inner Ear

The Inner Ear

Including Otoneurology, Otosurgery, and Problems in Modern Warfare

1st Edition - January 1, 1943

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  • Authors: Joseph Fischer, Louis E. Wolfson
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483222462

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The Inner Ear: Including Otoneurology, Otosurgery, and Problems in Modern Warfare covers the anatomical, physiological and the central pathways of the inner ear. This book is composed of 15 chapters that particularly consider the pathologic anatomy of the various forms of labyrinthine diseases. The first three chapters deal with the clinical anatomy and physiological features of the inner ear. The next chapter examines certain conditions that can be observed during induced and abnormal excitability of the labyrinth. These topics are followed by considerable chapters on various forms of labyrinthine diseases, including otosclerosis, inflammatory diseases, intracranial complications, congenital diseases, neoplasms, facial palsy, vascular lesions, and war trauma. A chapter evaluates the potential use of sulfa drugs in chemotherapy for inner ear cases. Another chapter surveys the role of the inner ear in the aeronautics and the functional tests for aviation fitness. The last chapter discusses the effects of atmospheric pressure changes on the ear. This book will be of value to otologists, otoneurologists, and otosurgeons.

Table of Contents

  • Authors; Prefaces

    Chapter I. Clinical Anatomy

    1. Nomenclature

    2. Topographic Relations Within the Petrous Bone

    3. The Bony Inner Ear

    4. The Membranous Inner Ear

    5. The Nervous Apparatus of the Inner Ear

    The Facial Nerve.

    The Cochlear Nerve.

    The Labyrinth Nerve and Its Peripheral Termination.

    The Central Labyrinthine Apparatus.

    6. Blood Supply of the Inner Ear

    7. The Dura Mater and the Venous Sinuses

    8. Communications of the Inner Ear with the Cranial Fossa

    9. Topographic Relation of the Inner Ear to the Brain

    Relation to the Cerebellum.

    Relation to the Cerebrum


    Chapter II. General Physiology

    1. Comparative Physiology

    2. Physiology of the Human Labyrinth

    3. Histophysiologic Factors

    4. Function of the Cristae

    5. Function of the Maculae (Otolithic Organ)

    6. Linear Movements

    7. Function of the Saccule

    8. Separation of Macula and Crista Functions

    9. Influence of the Labyrinth on the Striated Musculature (Tonus)

    10. Influence of the Labyrinth on the Autonomous System

    11. Kinetovisual Function

    12. Summary


    Chapter III. Applied Physiology

    Spontaneous Manifestations

    1. Vertigo

    2. Spontaneous Disturbances of Equilibrium and Coordination

    3. Spontaneous Nystagmus

    4. Conjugate Paresis and Conjugate Deviation

    5. Convergence Spasm

    6. Labyrinthine Strabismus


    Induced Reactions

    1. Optokinetic Reaction

    2. Caloric Reaction

    3. Bilateral Calorization

    4. Turning Reaction

    5. Mechanical Reaction (Fistula Symptom)

    6. Galvanic Reaction

    7. Tonic Reflexes and Reactions


    Chapter IV. Functional Tests

    Spontaneous Manifestations

    1. Vertigo

    2. Spontaneous Disturbances of Equilibrium and Coordination

    3. Spontaneous Nystagmus

    4. Conjugate Paresis and Conjugate Deviation of the Eyeballs


    Induced Reactions

    1. Optokinetic Tests

    2. Caloric Tests

    3. Bilateral Calorization

    4. Turning Tests

    5. Mechanical Tests (Fistula Symptom)

    6. Galvanic Test

    7. Tonic Reflexes and Reactions


    Evaluation of Abnormal Reactions

    1. Changes in Relation to Certain Stimuli

    2. Changes in Certain Semicircular Canals

    3. Vestibular Disharmony

    4. Hyperexcitability

    5. Hypo-excitability

    6. Loss of Excitability

    7. Qualitative Changes

    Differentiation of Peripheral and Central Lesions

    1. Significance of Spontaneous Manifestations

    2. Significance of Induced Reactions

    Chapter V. Primary Diseases of the Labyrinthine Capsule: Otosclerosis

    1. Historical Viewpoints

    2. Pathologic Anatomy

    3. Etiology

    4. Clinical Diagnosis

    5. Treatment


    Chapter VI. Inflammatory Diseases of the Inner Ear

    Lesions of Labyrinth

    1. Otitis Interna Serosa

    2. Para-Otitis Interna Purulenta

    3. Peri-Otitis Interna Purulenta

    4. Otitis Interna Purulenta

    5. Otitis Interna Purulenta Complicata

    6. Otitis Interna Traumatica

    7. Indications for Surgery

    8. Operative Technic

    Inflammation of the Petrous Pyramid

    1. Pathways of Infection: Pathology

    2. Clinical Diagnosis

    3. Treatment


    Chapter VII. Intracranial Labyrinthogenic Complications

    1. Viewpoints and Classification

    2. Extradural Lesions (Pachymeningitis Externa)

    Etiology and Pathologic Anatomy.

    Symptoms and Diagnosis.


    3. Intradural Lesions

    Empyema of the Endolymphatic Sac.

    Sinus Thrombosis.

    4. Subdural Lesions

    Pachymeningitis Interna (Subdural Abscess).


    Serous Meningitis.

    Purulent Meningitis.

    5. Cerebellar Abscess

    General Considerations.


    Paths of Infection.

    Pathologic Anatomy.




    Differential Diagnosis.

    Operative Treatment.

    6. Temporosphenoidal Abscess




    Chapter VIII. Chemotherapy

    1. Classification and General Use of the Sulfa Drugs





    2. Use of Sulfa Drugs in Otology


    Chapter IX. Facial Palsy

    1. Anatomic and Physiologic Basis

    2. Classification and Etiology

    Otogenic (Inflammatory) Facial Palsy.

    Facial Palsy in Connection with Skull Trauma.

    Facial Palsy Due to Operative Injuries.

    Facial Palsy in Connection with Tumors.

    Facial Palsy of Unknown Origin.

    3. Clinical Signs and Symptoms

    4. Treatment

    Causal Treatment.

    Conservative Treatment.

    Surgical Repair.


    Chapter X. Congenital Diseases

    1. Changes of the Bony Inner Ear

    Systemic Diseases of the Bones.


    Arrested Malformations.

    2. Changes of the Nerve and Sensory Apparatus


    Chronic Progressive Inner-Ear Deafness.

    Anomalies of the Labyrinth.


    Chapter XI. Neoplasms

    1. Neoplasms of the Inner Ear

    Endothelioma (Meningeoma).



    2. Neoplasms of the Cerebellopontile Angle

    Acoustic Tumors (Neurinoma).

    Other Angle Tumors.

    3. Tumors of the Anterior and Middle Cranial Fossae: Congestive Inner Ear



    Chapter XII. Vascular Lesions: Ménière's Syndrome

    1. Classification

    2. Pathologic Anatomy

    3. Etiology

    Theories of Causation.

    4. Symptomatology

    5. Treatment

    Medical Therapy.

    Surgical Therapy.


    Chapter XIII. War Trauma

    1. Skull Fractures



    2. Concussion of the Inner Ear


    3. Trauma Due to Explosions

    Ear Symptoms Due to a Sudden Blast (Acute Trauma).

    Ear Symptoms Due to Repeated Short Explosions (Chronic Trauma).

    Ear Symptoms Due to Concussion of the Brain.

    Ear Symptoms Due to Concussion of the Brain and of the Inner Ear.

    Ear Symptoms Due to Brain Concussion and Fracture of the Skull.

    Ear Symptoms of Psychogenic Nature.

    4. Gunshot Injuries



    Chapter XIV. The Role of the Inner Ear in Aeronautics

    1. Physiology of the Cochlea and Labyrinth in the Usual Environment



    2. Physiology and Pathology of the Cochlea and Labyrinth in the Unusual Environment (Air)



    (Blind Flight; Combat Flight; Airsickness)

    3. Functional Tests for Aviation Fitness




    Chapter XV. Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Changes on the Ear

    1. Effects of Increased Atmospheric Pressure

    2. Effects of Decreased Atmospheric Pressure

    3. Effects of Sudden Changes in Atmospheric Pressure

    4. Regulations for Examination of Flyers

    Eustachian Tube Patency.

    Nose and Paranasal Sinuses.




Product details

  • No. of pages: 434
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1943
  • Published: January 1, 1943
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483222462

About the Authors

Joseph Fischer

Louis E. Wolfson

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