The Indian Ocean Nodule Field

The Indian Ocean Nodule Field

Geology and Resource Potential

2nd Edition - November 27, 2017

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  • Authors: R. Mukhopadhyay, Anil Kumar Ghosh, Sridhar Iyer
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128054741
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444637628

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The Indian Ocean Nodule Field: Geology and Resource Potential, Second Edition, provides a view of the most recent studies along with classical theories starting from the 1960s. New concepts, hypotheses and critical appreciation of the state-of-the-art knowledge on nodule formation and resource management are featured in this new edition. The economy of the Indian Ocean has vast potential and yet it is one of the least studied oceans. Garnering economic advantage out of mineral resources from deep oceans has been a long cherished dream for the mining community. The availability of 5-metal rich polymetallic (manganese) nodules in specific areas of the Indian Ocean has lured researchers to discover more about their processes of formation, growth, distribution and enrichment.

Key Features

  • Collates, discusses and succinctly presents voluminous and scattered information from various books and journals for easy understanding and dissemination
  • Features two new chapters: statistical modeling of the formation, growth, distribution and metal enrichment of nodules; and biogeochemistry of the Central Indian Ocean Basin
  • Includes an assessment of Indian Ocean nodules, one of the least studied oceans in comparison to samples analyzed from the world’s oceans


Geologists, Geochemists, Economic geologists, Marine geologists, Geomorphologists, Geographers, Mineralogists, and Mining industry

Table of Contents

    Nodule research through the Ages
    Nodules in various environment
    Nodule in World Ocean 
    Nodule in other Water Bodies
    Physiography and Geology 
    Physics (currents, waves) and Chemistry 
    Evolution of the Indian Ocean Nodule Field
    Ridge-Normal Lineaments 
    Ridge Parallel Lineation and Anomalies 
    Major Volcanics  
    Minor Volcanics 
    Hydrothermal Input
    Alteration of Volcanics
    Tectonics and Volcanics: Interrelations
    Distribution and Source 
    Sedimentary Processes
    Biological Organisms- Mega to Micro
    6. FERROMANGANESE DEPOSITS - Characteristics 
    Distribution, Morphology, Internal constitution, 
    Mineralogy, Chemical composition, Growth rate
    Ferromanganese Encrustation 
    Factors Influencing Nodule Formation 
    Water-Sediment-Nodule-Biota interplay
     Modelling formation, growth and enrichment
    Resource Identification 
    Mining Technology 
    Environmental Impact Assessment 
    Metal Extraction and Processing
    Law of the Sea
    Global Scenario (nodule resources in areas claimed by other countries)
    Economics of Ferromanganese Deposits
    Scope for Future Investigations

Product details

  • No. of pages: 428
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: November 27, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128054741
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444637628

About the Authors

R. Mukhopadhyay

Ph.D. Marine Geology- Manganese Nodules (Calcutta University), 1988 M.Sc. Geology (Calcutta University), 1979 B.Sc. Geology (Honours), (Burdwan University), 1977, Ranadhir Mukhopadhyay specializes in marine minerals exploration; geodynamics of continental margin, and coastal ecosystem management. In addition to writing the first edition of The Indian Ocean Nodule Field, he has written a book on the mineral wealth of the ocean, has edited another book, and has published more than three dozen research papers in top-ranking journals. Former Director of Mauritius Oceanography Institute, Dr. Mukhopadhyay is also credited with the formation of InRidge- India’s mid ocean ridge research initiative. He is a specialist in the field of formation and growth of manganese nodules, and contributed considerably in post-Cretaceous continental margin research

Affiliations and Expertise

Chief Scientists, CSIR, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India

Anil Kumar Ghosh

Anil K. Ghosh, Professor-emeritus, is an eminent academician in the field of mineral resources at University of Calcutta. He has guided many doctoral and post-doctoral projects, and published about fifty research papers in SCI journals. He has researched on Indian and Pacific Ocean nodules in great details utilizing close collaboration with other institutions. He is a co-author of the Elsevier's book on Indian Ocean nodules, and is the senior author of another book on underwater minerals. Prof Ghosh has also edited a book on land based resources, and was the guest-editor of a special volume of a reputed journal. Recently, he has taken the pioneering initiative to declare ‘charnockite’ as the National Rock of India.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Geology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India

Sridhar Iyer

Sridhar D Iyer has investigated the volcanics and morphotectonics of the mid-ocean ridges and seamounts. The study provided better understanding about the geomorphology of the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) and the characteristics and origin of the volcanics and their relationship with the ferromanganese deposits. He is presently working on the challenging aspects of coastal mineral resources. He has received the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research’s (New Delhi, India) Young Scientist Award (1994) and the CSIR Raman Research Fellowship (1996). He has more than 70 publications in peer-reviewed and reputed journals and has also co-authored a book on the ferromanganese deposits of the CIOB. Sridhar D Iyer has a doctoral degree in Marine Geology and is a Professor and Chief Scientist with CSIR- National Institute of Oceanography, Goa India. He has 35 years of research experience in Marine Geology and his fields of interest are deep sea geomorphology, structures, volcanism and resources especially polymetallic nodules and hydrothermal minerals. In the last decade and half he has carried out investigations related to the Indian coasts with emphasis on coastal geology, petrology and placer minerals. He has participated in a number of oceanographic expeditions and enjoys carrying out coastal field works. Several students and project assistants were guided and mentored by him for their Master’s dissertations and doctoral thesis. He has co-authored 2 books, published more than 80 research papers and is a reviewer for several journals. He was India’s corresponding member for InterRidge and was a recipient of the CSIR-Young Scientist award and Raman Research Fellowship.

Affiliations and Expertise

CSIR, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India

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