The Impact of Protein Chemistry on the Biomedical Sciences

The Impact of Protein Chemistry on the Biomedical Sciences

1st Edition - January 1, 1984

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  • Editor: Alan Schechter
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149891

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The Impact of Protein Chemistry on the Biomedical Sciences focuses on the structure, function, and synthesis of proteins. This book examines the various approaches on how amino acids are polymerized in vitro, which involves the physical, chemical, immunological, enzymologic, biosynthetic, and organic synthetic techniques. Comprised of five parts encompassing 27 chapters, this book starts with an overview of Christian B. Anfinsen’s role in the development of protein chemistry and the training of scientists who have advanced their experiences in his laboratory to pioneer in the field of biological and medical sciences. This text then examines the synthesis of albumin molecule in the bloodstream as it carries cystine, hematin, bilirubin, fatty acids, and aromatic compounds. Other chapters discuss the kinetic experiments of hydrogen exchange in aqueous solution between peptide molecules and solvent water. This text also introduces the reader to the lipoprotein–atherosclerosis connection by studying the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins. This book is a valuable source of information for biologists, chemical biologists, scientists, and students.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors and Participants


    Introduction: The Anfinsen Series

    Christian Anfinsen and The National Institutes of Health

    Part I. Research in Perspective

    1. Historical Perspective of Biomedical Research

    A. Baird Hastings

    2. Basic Research as an Investment in the Nation's Future

    I. Background

    II. A Glimpse of Activities in the OSTP

    III. Closing Remarks


    Part II. Protein Chemistry

    3. From Polypeptide Chemistry to Muscle Contraction



    4. Serum Albumin: Adventures of a Circulating Protein

    I. Features of Albumin

    II. Mode of Biosynthesis of Albumin

    III. Nature of the Intracellular Albumin: Proalbumin

    IV. Albumin in the Circulation

    V. Fate of Albumin

    VI. Conclusion


    5. What Does Hydrogen Exchange Tell Us about Proteins?

    I. The Hydrogen-Exchange Method

    II. Interpretation of Exchange Rates


    6. The Mechanism of Protein Folding

    I. Equilibrium Ensembles of Protein Conformations

    II. Information for Cooperative Folding

    III. Linkage of Interatomic Interactions

    IV. Determinant of the Ordered Structure

    V. Dynamic Equilibrium of Folding and Unfolding

    VI. Cytochrome c Fragment-Complementing System

    VII. Energy Barrier for Unfolding

    VIII. Concluding Remarks


    7. Chemical Syntheses and Biological Activities of Cyclic Peptides

    I. General Features of Microbial Peptides

    II. Syntheses and Antibacterial Activities of Gramicidin S and Its Analogs

    III. Syntheses and Necrotic Activities of AM Toxins and Their Analogs


    8. Affinity Labeling: From Nuclease to Cells

    I. Affinity Labeling

    II. Affinity Labeling of Nuclease

    III. Affinity Labeling of Antibodies

    IV. Affinity Labeling of Ribosomes

    V. Affinity Labeling of Hormone Carrier and Receptor Proteins

    VI. Affinity Labeling of Cells

    VII. Conclusions


    9. Structural Bases of Biological Function: From Nucleases to Neurophysins

    I. Heritage of the Observation of Spontaneous Self-Assembly

    II. Semisynthesis as a Probe of the Sequence Code

    III. Biosynthetic Origin of Peptides and Proteins

    IV. Concluding Remarks


    10. Staphylococcal Nuclease, a Calcium-Binding Protein: Path to the Vitamin K-Dependent Blood Coagulation Proteins



    Part III. Immunology

    11. Molecular Evolution, Antibody Formation, and Embryogenesis

    I. Molecular Evolution

    II. Antibody Formation

    III. Embryogenesis

    IV. Status of the Embryogenesis Problem


    12. The Combining Site of Antibodies: From the Protein to the Gene

    I. Affinity Labeling of the Antibody Combining Site

    II. Preparation of Fv Fragments

    III. Model-Building Studies

    IV. Structure and Diversity of Immunoglobulin VH Genes

    V. Sequence of the 5' Noncoding and Leader Regions

    VI. Sequence of VH Coding Region and the Recombination Signals

    VII. Evolutionary Diversity of VH Genes

    VIII. Immune VH Gene Repertoire Is Rich in Pseudogenes

    IX. Conclusion


    13. Protein Conformation and Biological Function: From Ribonuclease to Antigens and Antibodies

    I. From Ribonuclease to Antibodies

    II. Role of Conformation in Antigen Specificity

    III. Toward Synthetic Vaccines: The MS-2 Bacteriophage Story

    IV. Combined Use of Synthetic Antigens and Synthetic Adjuvants

    V. Conclusion


    14. Antigenic Determinants of Proteins and Synthetic Vaccines

    I. Neutralization of Biologically Active Materials by Antibodies

    II. The "Loop" Peptide: A Defined Antigenic Region of Lysozyme

    III. Synthetic Peptides Inducing Antiviral Response

    IV. Synthetic Vaccines?


    15. Staphylococcal Nuclease as a Model Antigen



    16. Autoimmunity to Acetylcholine Receptor and Its Significance for Myasthenia Gravis

    I. Acetylcholine Receptor, Myasthenia Gravis, and Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis

    II. Regulation of Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis by Denatured Acetylcholine Receptor

    III. Regulation of Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis by Antiidiotypes

    IV. Monoclonal Antibodies

    V. Conclusion


    17. The Antibody Combining Site: A Basis for a New Pharmacology

    I. Review of the Potential Application of Antibodies to Human Pharmacology

    II. Antibodies as Drugs


    Part IV. Metabolism and Endocrinology

    18. Lipoproteins and Atherosclerosis: A Problem in Cell Biology

    I. The Anfinsen—Lipoprotein Lipase Connection

    II. Approaches to Research on the Atherosclerosis-Lipoprotein Connection

    III. Cells Involved in Low-Density Lipoprotein Degradation in Vivo

    IV. Pathways Available for Catabolism of Native Low-Density Lipoprotein

    V. Pathways for Catabolism of Modified Forms of Low-Density Lipid

    VI. Role of Other Lipoproteins


    19. Protein Chemistry and the Cardiologist



    20. Regulation of Cyclic Nucleotide Metabolism: From Proteins to Cyclic Nucleotides and Back

    I. Cyclic Nucleotides and Some Enzymes That Metabolize Them

    II. Adenylate Cyclase and Choleragen

    III. ADP-Ribosylation of Proteins and the Future


    21. Activation of Adenylate Cyclase in the Adrenal Cortex

    I. The Nuclease Problem

    II. The ACTH Problem

    III. Concluding Remarks


    22. Studies of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: Implications for Fertility Research

    I. Purification

    II. Structure

    III. Precursor Structure

    IV. Biological Application

    V. Immunochemical Distinction between hCG and hLH


    23. Excursions of a Protein Vagabond: From Nuclease to Affinity Chromatography to Hormone Receptors and Membranes



    Part V· Genetics

    24. Early Embryonic Development: Normal and Abnormal



    25. Molecular Regulation in Muscle Development

    I. Lessons from Protein Folding and Virus Assembly

    II. The Genetic Approach: From Phage Morphogenesis to Muscle Development

    III. Structural Interactions of Myosin during the Assembly of Thick Filaments

    IV. Coordinate Synthesis of Myosin Forms during Morphogenesis of Muscle

    V. Gene Switching during Embryonic Muscle Differentiation


    26. Interferon: Past, Present, and Future

    I. Past and Present

    II. Future


    27. Parathyroid Hormone: Chemistry, Biosynthesis, and Mode of Action

    I. Introduction

    II. Physiology of Hormone Action

    III. Isolation and Sequence Analysis

    IV. Biosynthesis

    V. Metabolism

    VI. Mechanism of Action and Structure-Activity Relations of Parathyroid Hormone

    VII. Summary




Product details

  • No. of pages: 448
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1984
  • Published: January 1, 1984
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149891

About the Editor

Alan Schechter

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