The Impact of Protein Chemistry on the Biomedical Sciences  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126227802, 9780323149891

The Impact of Protein Chemistry on the Biomedical Sciences

1st Edition

Editors: Alan Schechter
eBook ISBN: 9780323149891
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1984
Page Count: 448
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The Impact of Protein Chemistry on the Biomedical Sciences focuses on the structure, function, and synthesis of proteins. This book examines the various approaches on how amino acids are polymerized in vitro, which involves the physical, chemical, immunological, enzymologic, biosynthetic, and organic synthetic techniques. Comprised of five parts encompassing 27 chapters, this book starts with an overview of Christian B. Anfinsen’s role in the development of protein chemistry and the training of scientists who have advanced their experiences in his laboratory to pioneer in the field of biological and medical sciences. This text then examines the synthesis of albumin molecule in the bloodstream as it carries cystine, hematin, bilirubin, fatty acids, and aromatic compounds. Other chapters discuss the kinetic experiments of hydrogen exchange in aqueous solution between peptide molecules and solvent water. This text also introduces the reader to the lipoprotein–atherosclerosis connection by studying the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins. This book is a valuable source of information for biologists, chemical biologists, scientists, and students.

Table of Contents

Contributors and Participants


Introduction: The Anfinsen Series

Christian Anfinsen and The National Institutes of Health

Part I. Research in Perspective

1. Historical Perspective of Biomedical Research

A. Baird Hastings

2. Basic Research as an Investment in the Nation's Future

I. Background

II. A Glimpse of Activities in the OSTP

III. Closing Remarks


Part II. Protein Chemistry

3. From Polypeptide Chemistry to Muscle Contraction



4. Serum Albumin: Adventures of a Circulating Protein

I. Features of Albumin

II. Mode of Biosynthesis of Albumin

III. Nature of the Intracellular Albumin: Proalbumin

IV. Albumin in the Circulation

V. Fate of Albumin

VI. Conclusion


5. What Does Hydrogen Exchange Tell Us about Proteins?

I. The Hydrogen-Exchange Method

II. Interpretation of Exchange Rates


6. The Mechanism of Protein Folding

I. Equilibrium Ensembles of Protein Conformations

II. Information for Cooperative Folding

III. Linkage of Interatomic Interactions

IV. Determinant of the Ordered Structure

V. Dynamic Equilibrium of Folding and Unfolding

VI. Cytochrome c Fragment-Complementing System

VII. Energy Barrier for Unfolding

VIII. Concluding Remarks


7. Chemical Syntheses and Biological Activities of Cyclic Peptides

I. General Features of Microbial Peptides

II. Syntheses and Antibacterial Activities of Gramicidin S and Its Analogs

III. Syntheses and Necrotic Activities of AM Toxins and Their Analogs


8. Affinity Labeling: From Nuclease to Cells

I. Affinity Labeling

II. Affinity Labeling of Nuclease

III. Affinity Labeling of Antibodies

IV. Affinity Labeling of Ribosomes

V. Affinity Labeling of Hormone Carrier and Receptor Proteins

VI. Affinity Labeling of Cells

VII. Conclusions


9. Structural Bases of Biological Function: From Nucleases to Neurophysins

I. Heritage of the Observation of Spontaneous Self-Assembly

II. Semisynthesis as a Probe of the Sequence Code

III. Biosynthetic Origin of Peptides and Proteins

IV. Concluding Remarks


10. Staphylococcal Nuclease, a Calcium-Binding Protein: Path to the Vitamin K-Dependent Blood Coagulation Proteins



Part III. Immunology

11. Molecular Evolution, Antibody Formation, and Embryogenesis

I. Molecular Evolution

II. Antibody Formation

III. Embryogenesis

IV. Status of the Embryogenesis Problem


12. The Combining Site of Antibodies: From the Protein to the Gene

I. Affinity Labeling of the Antibody Combining Site

II. Preparation of Fv Fragments

III. Model-Building Studies

IV. Structure and Diversity of Immunoglobulin VH Genes

V. Sequence of the 5' Noncoding and Leader Regions

VI. Sequence of VH Coding Region and the Recombination Signals

VII. Evolutionary Diversity of VH Genes

VIII. Immune VH Gene Repertoire Is Rich in Pseudogenes

IX. Conclusion


13. Protein Conformation and Biological Function: From Ribonuclease to Antigens and Antibodies

I. From Ribonuclease to Antibodies

II. Role of Conformation in Antigen Specificity

III. Toward Synthetic Vaccines: The MS-2 Bacteriophage Story

IV. Combined Use of Synthetic Antigens and Synthetic Adjuvants

V. Conclusion


14. Antigenic Determinants of Proteins and Synthetic Vaccines

I. Neutralization of Biologically Active Materials by Antibodies

II. The "Loop" Peptide: A Defined Antigenic Region of Lysozyme

III. Synthetic Peptides Inducing Antiviral Response

IV. Synthetic Vaccines?


15. Staphylococcal Nuclease as a Model Antigen



16. Autoimmunity to Acetylcholine Receptor and Its Significance for Myasthenia Gravis

I. Acetylcholine Receptor, Myasthenia Gravis, and Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis

II. Regulation of Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis by Denatured Acetylcholine Receptor

III. Regulation of Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis by Antiidiotypes

IV. Monoclonal Antibodies

V. Conclusion


17. The Antibody Combining Site: A Basis for a New Pharmacology

I. Review of the Potential Application of Antibodies to Human Pharmacology

II. Antibodies as Drugs


Part IV. Metabolism and Endocrinology

18. Lipoproteins and Atherosclerosis: A Problem in Cell Biology

I. The Anfinsen—Lipoprotein Lipase Connection

II. Approaches to Research on the Atherosclerosis-Lipoprotein Connection

III. Cells Involved in Low-Density Lipoprotein Degradation in Vivo

IV. Pathways Available for Catabolism of Native Low-Density Lipoprotein

V. Pathways for Catabolism of Modified Forms of Low-Density Lipid

VI. Role of Other Lipoproteins


19. Protein Chemistry and the Cardiologist



20. Regulation of Cyclic Nucleotide Metabolism: From Proteins to Cyclic Nucleotides and Back

I. Cyclic Nucleotides and Some Enzymes That Metabolize Them

II. Adenylate Cyclase and Choleragen

III. ADP-Ribosylation of Proteins and the Future


21. Activation of Adenylate Cyclase in the Adrenal Cortex

I. The Nuclease Problem

II. The ACTH Problem

III. Concluding Remarks


22. Studies of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: Implications for Fertility Research

I. Purification

II. Structure

III. Precursor Structure

IV. Biological Application

V. Immunochemical Distinction between hCG and hLH


23. Excursions of a Protein Vagabond: From Nuclease to Affinity Chromatography to Hormone Receptors and Membranes



Part V· Genetics

24. Early Embryonic Development: Normal and Abnormal



25. Molecular Regulation in Muscle Development

I. Lessons from Protein Folding and Virus Assembly

II. The Genetic Approach: From Phage Morphogenesis to Muscle Development

III. Structural Interactions of Myosin during the Assembly of Thick Filaments

IV. Coordinate Synthesis of Myosin Forms during Morphogenesis of Muscle

V. Gene Switching during Embryonic Muscle Differentiation


26. Interferon: Past, Present, and Future

I. Past and Present

II. Future


27. Parathyroid Hormone: Chemistry, Biosynthesis, and Mode of Action

I. Introduction

II. Physiology of Hormone Action

III. Isolation and Sequence Analysis

IV. Biosynthesis

V. Metabolism

VI. Mechanism of Action and Structure-Activity Relations of Parathyroid Hormone

VII. Summary





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© Academic Press 1984
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Alan Schechter

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