The Human Auditory System - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444626301, 9780444626295

The Human Auditory System, Volume 129

1st Edition

Fundamental Organization and Clinical Disorders

Editors: Gastone Celesia Gregory Hickok
eBook ISBN: 9780444626295
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444626301
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 19th February 2015
Page Count: 722
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Table of Contents

  • Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • SECTION 1: Anatomy and physiology of the human auditory system
    • Chapter 1: Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and overview
      • The outer and middle ears
      • The cochlea
      • The auditory central nervous system: introduction to central processing
      • The ventral auditory stream of the brainstem; sound localization by comparing responses at the two ears
      • The dorsal auditory stream of the brainstem: complex stimulus analysis
      • The inferior colliculus
      • The medial geniculate body
      • The auditory cortex
      • The centrifugal system
    • Chapter 2: Anatomic organization of the auditory cortex
      • Abstract
      • What is auditory cortex?
      • Principles of auditory cortical organization
      • Correspondence of human and non-human primate auditory cortex
      • Concluding remarks
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 3: Development of the auditory system
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Development of the ear
      • Behavioral testing and psychoacoustics
      • Coding of auditory features
      • Masking and auditory segregation
      • Spatial and binaural hearing
      • Relationship between age of development and desirable age of intervention in deaf children
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 4: Representation of loudness in the auditory cortex
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Psychophysics
      • Animal physiology
      • Human cortical studies
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 5: Temporal coding in the auditory cortex
      • Abstract
      • Overview
      • Encoding of spectrotemporal features in the auditory cortex
      • Cortical processing of continuous sound streams
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 6: Sound localization
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Some terms and techniques
      • Horizontal localization
      • Vertical and front/back localization
      • Distance localization
      • Motion perception
      • Localization in reverberant spaces: the precedence effect
      • Central representation of sound-source locations
      • Beyond localization
    • Chapter 7: New perspectives on the auditory cortex: learning and memory
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Basic considerations and early findings
      • Contemporary approaches: representational plasticity
      • Isn't all auditory learning actually "perceptual learning"?
      • Does the primary auditory cortex hold specific memory traces?
      • Functions of representational plasticity in the primary auditory cortex
      • Arguments to the contrary
      • Mechanisms of representational plasticity and specific auditory memory
      • Implications for treatment of auditory and related disorders
      • Conclusions and general implications
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 8: Neural basis of speech perception
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The dual-route model of speech processing
      • Clinical correlates of the dual-stream model
      • Sex differences in language organization
      • Summary
    • Chapter 9: Role of the auditory system in speech production
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The planning of speech movements
      • Brain regions involved in speech articulation
      • Neurocomputational models of speech production
      • Future directions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 10: White-matter pathways for speech and language processing
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The language-relevant brain regions
      • The language pathways
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 11: Neural basis of music perception
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Musical properties of isolated auditory objects
      • Complex musical objects and their combination
      • Musical expertise and plasticity in the auditory cortex
      • Music beyond the auditory cortex
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 12: Music and language: relations and disconnections
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Music and language: structural and functional origins
      • Temporal processing in music and language
      • Music and language: models of learning and plasticity
      • Neural plasticity: the interactive auditory system
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
  • SECTION 2: Methodology and techniques
    • Chapter 13: Invasive recordings in the human auditory cortex
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Historic overview
      • Research subjects
      • Acute experiments
      • Chronic experiments
      • Data analysis
      • Studies of spectrotemporal processing: electrophysiologic recording
      • Functional connectivity studies: modeling and electric stimulation tract tracing
      • Functional lesioning studies: electric stimulation mapping and cortical cooling
      • Caveats of the method and validity of invasive recordings
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 14: Electromagnetic recording of the auditory system
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Electrophysiologic recording
      • Magnetoencephalography
      • Auditory research using MEG
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 15: Hemodynamic imaging of the auditory cortex
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Applications of fmri to investigate central auditory function
      • Key principles of magnetic resonance imaging
      • Practical considerations in optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio of auditory fmri
      • Practical considerations in optimizing the quality of auditory fmri data
      • Experimental designs
      • Analysis
      • Concluding remarks
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 16: Imaging white-matter pathways of the auditory system with diffusion imaging tractography
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Diffusion mri tractography
      • Tractography reconstructions of the auditory pathways
      • Conclusions and future directions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 17: Electrophysiologic auditory tests
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Electrocochleogram
      • Brainstem auditory evoked potentials
      • Middle-latency auditory evoked potentials
      • Long-latency auditory evoked potentials
    • Chapter 18: Psychophysical and behavioral peripheral and central auditory tests
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Peripheral tests
      • Central auditory tests
      • Psychophysical tests in electrophysiologic paradigms
      • Cost-effectiveness
      • Summary and conclusions
  • SECTION 3: Disorders of the auditory system
    • Chapter 19: Neurocognitive development in congenitally deaf children
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Prevalence and epidemiology
      • Effects of permanent childhood hearing loss on the child and family
      • Current context for children with hearing loss
      • Factors affecting neurocognitive development
      • Audition and spoken language
      • Cognition and learning
      • Summary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 20: Aging of the auditory system
      • Abstract
      • General aspects of aging
      • Definition and terminology
      • Epidemiology
      • Histopathologic changes and schuknecht's classification
      • Aging of the peripheral auditory system
      • Aging of the central auditory system
      • Diagnosis and clinical manifestation
      • Rehabilitation
      • Consequences of arhl
    • Chapter 21: Decreased sound tolerance: hyperacusis, misophonia, diplacousis, and polyacousis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Definitions
      • Decreased sound tolerance (hyperacusis and misophonia), diplacousis, and polyacousis as a problem
      • Diagnosis
      • Prevalence and epidemiology
      • Mechanisms
      • The neurophysiological model of decreased sound tolerance
      • Treatments
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 22: Auditory synesthesias
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Types of synesthesia
      • Effect of drugs on developmental synesthesia
      • Auditory synesthesia: history and art
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 23: Tinnitus
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Determining tinnitus etiology
      • Treatment of tinnitus
      • Hyperacusis
      • The neurology of tinnitus
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 24: Auditory hallucinations
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Definition, conceptualization, and classification
      • Phenomenologic characteristics
      • Etiology
      • Pathophysiology
      • Treatment
      • Metatheoretic considerations
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 25: Palinacousis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Defining characteristics
      • History
      • Anatomy
      • Auditory memory
      • Clinical characteristics of palinacousis
      • Differential diagnosis
      • Pathophysiology of palinacousis
      • Etiology
      • Associated phenomena
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 26: Musicogenic epilepsy
      • Abstract
      • Seizures and reflex epilepsies
      • Clinical aspects of musicogenic seizures
      • Diagnostic evaluation of musicogenic seizures
      • Illustrative case
      • Functional imaging of musicogenic seizures
      • Relevance of musicogenic epilepsy to epilepsy and music
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 27: Deafness in cochlear and auditory nerve disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Structures affected by sensorineural hearing loss
      • Etiology
      • Diagnosis
      • The effects of sensorineural hearing loss on auditory coding
      • Perceptual consequences of sensorineural hearing loss
      • Treatment of sensorineural hearing loss
      • Summary
    • Chapter 28: Auditory neuropathy
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Diagnosis
      • Etiology
      • Pathologies of auditory neuropathy
      • Clinical expression of auditory neuropathy
      • Hearing disorders accompanying auditory neuropathy
      • Auditory processing in auditory neuropathy
      • Treatment of auditory neuropathy
      • New directions
    • Chapter 29: Hearing disorders in brainstem lesions
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Brainstem auditory system
      • Prevalence of hearing disorders in brainstem diseases
      • Evaluation of brainstem-related hearing disorders
      • Hearing abnormalities in isolated lesions of auditory brainstem centers
      • Auditory hallucinations in brainstem disorders
      • Brainstem clinical disorders
      • Management of brainstem hearing disorders
    • Chapter 30: Central auditory processing disorders in children and adults
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Current definitions and conceptualizations of CAPD
      • Diagnosis of CAPD
      • Intervention for CAPD
      • Case study
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 31: Auditory neglect and related disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Auditory behavioral deficits in neglect and similar disorders
      • Neural basis of neglect
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 32: Auditory agnosia
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Definitions
      • General auditory agnosia
      • Verbal auditory agnosia (word deafness)
      • Phonagnosia
      • Agnosia for environmental sounds
      • Amusia
      • Auditory affective agnosia
      • Treatment for auditory agnosia
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 33: Congenital amusias
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • A Deficit on the pitch dimension: perception and memory
      • Neural correlates of congenital amusia: anatomic and functional data
      • Are the processing deficits in congenital amusia pitch-specific?
      • Disorders of pitch production and music production in congenital amusia: a dissociation from perception?
      • Implicit pitch processing in congenital amusia
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 34: Acquired amusia
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Scope of this chapter
      • A cognitive framework for understanding and assessing amusia
      • Disorders of musical scene analysis
      • Disorders of musical property encoding
      • Disorders of musical object perception: apperceptive agnosia
      • Disorders of musical object recognition: associative agnosias
      • Disorders of musical emotion processing
      • Conclusions and future directions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 35: Hearing disorders in stroke
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Hearing loss after stroke
      • Auditory-processing deficits after stroke
      • Other auditory phenomena: tinnitus, auditory hallucinations, hyperacusis, and palinacousis
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 36: Hearing disorders in multiple sclerosis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Protocol for detecting lesions in the brainstem auditory pathway
      • Psychophysical hearing assessment
      • Theoretic explanations
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 37: Hearing and music in dementia
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Overview of dementia
      • Hearing function in neurodegenerative diseases
      • Processing of music in neurodegenerative diseases
      • Processing of non-verbal sounds in neurodegenerative diseases
      • Music as therapy for dementia
      • Summary
    • Chapter 38: Future advances
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • New and developing technologies
      • New technologies enable new large-scale research projects
      • Applications to disease
  • Index


The Human Auditory System: Fundamental Organization and Clinical Disorders provides a comprehensive and focused reference on the neuroscience of hearing and the associated neurological diagnosis and treatment of auditory disorders. This reference looks at this dynamic area of basic research, a multidisciplinary endeavor with contributions from neuroscience, clinical neurology, cognitive neuroscience, cognitive science communications disorders, and psychology, and its dramatic clinical application.

Key Features

  • A focused reference on the neuroscience of hearing and clinical disorders
  • Covers both basic brain science, key methodologies and clinical diagnosis and treatment of audiology disorders
  • Coverage of audiology across the lifespan from birth to elderly topics


Clinical and research neurologists, research neuroscientists, cognitive neuroscientists and cognitive scientists interested in hearing.


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© Elsevier 2015
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Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Gastone Celesia Editor

Dr. Celesia received his medical degree magna cum laude from the University of Genoa Medical School in Italy and his master of science degree from McGill University Faculty of Medicine in Montreal, Canada. He completed a Neurology residency at the Montreal Neurological Institute and a post-doctoral fellowship in Neurophysiology at the University of Wisconsin Madison.

Dr. Celesia is board certified in Neurology. He is a member of several medical societies including the American Academy of Neurology, the American Neurological Association, and the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. He was President of the American Academy of Clinical Neurophysiology in 1993 to 1995. He was Editor-in-Chief of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, an international medical journal from 1987 to 1999.

Dr. Celesia has published more than 190 articles on neurological disorders and has been an invited speaker at various meetings both nationally and internationally. He has been a Professor of Neurology at the University of Wisconsin Madison from 1974 to 1982. At Loyola University of Chicago, Dr. Celesia was Professor and Chairman of the Department of Neurology and Director of the Laboratories of Clinical Neurophysiology from 1983 to 1999. In 2006 he was the recipient of the Herbert Jasper Award by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society.

He is internationally known for his research in auditory and visual disorders. In 1969 in collaboration with F. Puletti he mapped the auditory cortex of humans undergoing surgery for the treatment of intractable epilepsy.

In 2005 he edited a book on “Disorders of Visual Processing” and in 2013 a book on Disorders of Peripheral and Central Auditory Processing both published by Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Dr. Celesia has helped train many neurologists and clinical neurophysiologists. Four of his former fellows are now chairing department of neurology or neurophysiology.

As a member of American Neurological Association he has chaired the Ethic Committee in 1994. Together with Dr. F. Plum he represented the ANA in the Multi-Society task Force on Persistent Vegetative State.

As a liaison from the IFCN (International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology) to the Latino American Chapter of IFCN he has fostered clinical neurophysiology education in South America.

In July, 2004 he retired as a professor of Neurology at Loyola and is now an adviser to the department of clinical neurophysiology at Kyushu University in Fukuoka Japan, an ex-officio member of the board of The Chicago Council for Science and Technology. He is member of the research committee of the Instituto Chiossone for the Blind in Genova Italy and of the European Task Force on the Vegetative State.

He volunteers at the Field Museum of Chicago Department of Zoology were he has contributed to the research of lions in Africa and recently published the effects of changing global climate on the distribution of the African lion.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Neurology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University, Chicago, IL, USA

Gregory Hickok Editor

Professor in the Department of Cognitive Sciences and Director for the Center of Cognitive Neuroscience at UC Irvine, Dr. Hickok’s research focuses on the neuroanatomy of language and cognitive neuroscience. He serves as Associate Editor for Human Brain Mapping and for Cognitive Neuropsychology and is past-Chair for the Society or the Neurobiology of Language. He has authored 88 journal publications (h-index 26), 18 book chapters, and is editing a volume entitled The Functional anatomy of Language for MIT Press.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA