The Horner Site

The Horner Site

The Type Site of the Cody Cultural Complex

1st Edition - May 21, 1987

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  • Editors: George Frison, Lawrence Todd
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483299365

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The Horner Site: The Type Site of the Cody Cultural Complex covers significant archaeological and geological research studies of the analytic and interpretative analysis of the Horner site. This 11-chapter text specifically explores the early Paleoindian studies at the site. The introductory chapters reflect the history of the Princeton and Smithsonian investigations at the Horner site, including the excavation techniques, geologic studies, stone tool assemblage, and faunal remains. The subsequent chapters discuss the paleoecological studies conducted by the University of Wyoming at the site, specifically the taphonomy of the Horner II bone bed. These topics are followed by descriptions of the projectile points and specialized bifaces from the Horner site, as well as the stone flaking material sources for the site. Other chapters focus on the geological features and the local fauna of the Horner site. The concluding chapters examine the soil formation and paleoenvironmental interpretation at the site. This book will be of great value to archaeologists, geologists, and paleontologists.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors



    1 Introduction

    The Foundations of High Plains Paleoindian Research

    The Bighorn Basin

    The Horner Site

    Paleoindian Evidence in the Bighorn Basin

    2 History of the Princeton and Smithsonian Investigations at the Horner Site

    3 Excavation and Documentation of the Princeton and Smithsonian Horner Site Assemblages


    Excavation Techniques

    Geologic Studies

    Stone Tool Assemblage


    Faunal Remains


    4 The University of Wyoming Investigations at the Horner Site

    Background Information

    The 1977 Work at the Horner Site

    The 1978 Investigations at the Horner Site

    Problems in Horner Site Interpretation

    Paleoecological Studies at the Horner Site

    The Final Investigations at the Horner Site

    The Horner II Bone Bed Analysis

    Concluding Remarks on the University of Wyoming Investigations

    Radiocarbon Dates from the Horner Site

    5 Taphonomy of the Horner II Bone Bed


    Taphonomy of Bone Beds

    The Alberta/Cody Bone Bed at the Horner Site

    Formation of the Alberta/Cody Bone Bed

    6 Projectile Points and Specialized Bifaces from the Horner Site


    The Analytical Sample

    Cody Complex Projectile-Point Typology

    The Horner II Assemblage

    The Horner I Assemblage

    Projectile-Point Comparisons

    Cody Knives

    Horner-Claypool Comparisons

    Projectile-Point Reworking

    Aberrant Forms


    7 The Tool Assemblage, Unfinished Bifaces, and Stone Flaking Material Sources for the Horner Site

    The Horner Site Tool Assemblages

    The Horner Site I Tool Assemblage

    The Horner Site II Tool Assemblage

    Stone Flaking Material Sources

    8 Geologic Investigations

    Method of Investigation

    Previous Geologic Investigations of the Horner Site

    General Setting

    Terraces of the Shoshone River Valley

    Geology of the Horner Site


    9 Horner Site Local Fauna: Vertebrates


    Systematic Descriptions


    10 Soil Formation and Paleoenvironmental Interpretation at the Horner Site, Park County, Wyoming



    The Site

    The Soil Profile and Sedimentologie Environments

    The Soils

    Summary and Conclusions

    11 Summary and Concluding Remarks

    General Observations

    Horner I

    Horner II

    Paleoindian Bison Procurement at the Horner Site

    Appendix 1 Bison Bone Measurements






    Appendix 2 The Claypool Study



    Technology of the Square-Based Projectile Points

    The Experiments

    Eden Point Manufacture Sequence

    Experimental Results

    Technological/Morphological Attributes of the Claypool Square-Based Projectile Points

    Special Flaking and Retouch Attributes

    Pressure Flake Spacing

    Allocation System

    Cody Knives



    Appendix 3 The Horner Site Debitage


    Mode of Occurrence

    Flake Types

    Distribution of Raw Stone Flaking Materials

    Lithic Technology and Site Use


    Appendix 4 Fossil Nonmarine Snails from the Horner Site


    Systematic Discussions

    Appendix 5 Opal Phytolith Studies from the Horner Site, Wyoming



    Bone Bed Level, 1978 Excavations


    Appendix 6 The Larson Cache


    Spatial Association Versus Behavioral Association

    Typology of the Larson Cache Materials

    Metric Comparisons

    Production Sequences and Options

    Artifact Use Histories


    Appendix 7 The Finley Site Bison Bone

    Modifications to the Finley Bison Remains


    Analysis of the Finley Bison Bones

    Appendix 8 Bison Mandibles from the Horner and Finley Sites

    Determination of Bison Age and Season of Death

    Horner and Finley Age Group Descriptions: Mandibular Dentition Eruption and Wear


    Bison Sexing by Molars and Mandibles

    Comparisons of the Horner and Finley Samples


    Appendix 9 Horner Site Artifact Data


    Name Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 586
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1987
  • Published: May 21, 1987
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483299365

About the Editors

George Frison

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Wyoming, Laramie, U.S.A.

Lawrence Todd

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Denver, Colorado, U.S.A.

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