The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128136973

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology

1st Edition

Series Volume Editors: Michael Balls Robert Combes Andrew Worth
Paperback ISBN: 9780128136973
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st September 2018
Page Count: 250
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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
    2. Europe
    3. North America
    4. Asia-Pacific
    5. South America (inc. Latin America)
    6. A Chronology of Alternatives
    7. Commercial Activities
    8. A Peek into the Future


The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology utilizes a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternatives as it became established following from the publication of William Russell and Rex Burch’s now classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique (1959) . Biological and computational systems and ethical human studies are discussed in terms of their integrated use in intelligent testing strategies, and their potential to offer an escape from reliance on animal models, which are of limited relevance and reliability because of profound species differences.

Emphasis is placed on the need to avoid attempts to directly replace animal procedures and to provide information equivalent to that provided by such procedures. This book focuses on using base toxicity predictions, as well as safety assessments on methods of direct relevance to what really happens in humans. These analyses are made based not only on an understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved, but also, taking into account the genetic, social, occupational and other factors which affect human susceptibility and responses.

Well established scientists provide an historical and chronological perspective, providing important reading for all researchers, students, and others interested in the safety evaluation of chemicals, medicines, vaccines, cosmetics, pesticides and other chemical products.

Key Features

  • Covers each global region in a systematic fashion, showing how regions compare in terms of problems faced and approach to resolving these
  • Includes a thorough chronology of alternatives research to provide a complete overview
  • Focuses on methods of direct relevance to humans to address issues of efficacy and waste


Toxicologists, pharmacologists, experimental biologists, dermatologists, cosmetic chemists, ophthalmologists, regulatory officers, and other researchers interested in the development of alternatives


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Academic Press
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About the Series Volume Editors

Michael Balls Series Volume Editor

MICHAEL BALLS read Zoology at Oxford University, and, after postgraduate studies in Switzerland and postdoctoral research in the USA, returned to Britain in 1966, to become a Lecturer in the School of Biological Sciences at the University of East Anglia. In 1975, he moved to the University of Nottingham Medical School, as a Senior Lecturer, and was later promoted to Reader in Medical Cell Biology and then to Professor of Medical Cell Biology. He is now an Emeritus Professor of the University. Professor Balls became a Trustee of FRAME (Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments) in 1979, and has been Chairman of the Trustees since 1981. He has been Editor of ATLA (Alternatives to Laboratory Animals) since 1983. He acted as an adviser to the British Government during the drafting and passage through Parliament of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, and, from 1987-1995, was a founder member of the Animal Procedures Committee, which advises the Government on all matters related to animal experimentation. In 1993, Professor Balls became the first Head of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), which is part of the Institute for Health & Consumer Protection of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, located in Ispra, Italy. ECVAM is responsible for leading and coordinating efforts at the European Union level, which are aimed at reducing, refining and replacing the use of laboratory animal procedures in research, education and testing, through the development and validation of advanced testing methods. He retired from ECVAM at the end of June 2002, but continues to devote much of his time to FRAME.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, University of Nottingham Medical School, UK

Robert Combes Series Volume Editor

ROBERT D. COMBES is an independent consultant in toxicology. He has held positions in academia and industry, where he broadened his interests to cover in vitro toxicology, biotransformation, in silico prediction, and the Three Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) as applied to laboratory animal experimentation. He was Scientific Director, then Director, of FRAME (Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments) from 1994 to 2008. He has published numerous papers, book chapters and conference proceedings, and has served on many national and international committees. He is a Fellow of the Society of Biology in the UK, has been on the editorial board of several international journals, the secretary of the United Kingdom Environmental Mutagen Society (UKEMS) and the president of the European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV), and is now an honorary member of ESTIV.

Affiliations and Expertise

Independent Consultant in Toxicology, Norwich, UK

Andrew Worth Series Volume Editor

ANDREW WORTH is the leader of the Computational Toxicology Project within the Institute for Health & Consumer Protection (IHCP) at the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC). Dr Worth has degrees in Physiological Sciences and Linguistics, both from Oxford University, and a PhD in computational toxicology from Liverpool John Moores University. He has been involved in JRC activities on chemical risk assessment, alternative test methods, and computational toxicology. Since 2003, he has led the Computational Toxicology group, which promotes the development, assessment, acceptance and implementation of computational methods suitable for the regulatory assessment of chemicals

Affiliations and Expertise

Group Leader, Predictive Toxicology, European Commission Joint Research Centre