The Hallucinogens

The Hallucinogens

1st Edition - January 1, 1967

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  • Authors: A. Hoffer, H. Osmond
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261690

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Description

The Hallucinogens attempts to provide a detailed description of the hallucinogens in a single volume. Hallucinogens are chemicals which in nontoxic doses produce changes in perception, in thought, and in mood, but which seldom produce mental confusion, memory loss, or disorientation for person, place, and time. These latter changes are characteristic of organic brain reactions following intoxications with alcohol, anesthetics, and other toxic drugs. The book covers the following hallucinogens: plant ß-phenethylamines, d-lysergic acid diethylamide, ololiuqui, indole hallucinogens derived from tryptophan, and taraxein. The discussions include their chemistry, biochemistry, and neurophysiological effects. The final chapter deals with animal studies with hallucinogenic drugs. This work has been written for chemists, biochemists, psychologists, sociologists, and research physicians. While it cannot satisfy each group fully, it is sufficiently comprehensive and well documented so that each group can use it as a springboard for future enquiry into these fascinating chemicals.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Chapter I. Plant ß-Phenethylamines

    Introduction

    Mescaline

    Mescaline Analogs

    Amphetamines

    Methylenedioxyamphetamines

    Asarone

    Kava Kava

    Safrole

    Sympathomimetic Amines

    References

    Chapter II A. d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

    Introduction

    Sources of LSD

    Chemistry of LSD

    Pharmacology

    Biochemistry of LSD

    Neurophysiological Effects

    Comparison of Some Ergot Alkaloids for Psychotomimetic Activity

    Toxicology of LSD

    Complications When LSD is Given

    Dose and Psychological Activity

    Effect of LSD on Normal Subjects

    Psychotomimetic Reaction to LSD

    The Psychedelic Experience

    Effect of LSD on Schizophrenic Patients

    Use of LSD in Psychotherapy

    Rapid Personality Change and LSD

    Criticisms of LSD Therapy and Rebuttal

    Modifiers of the LSD Experience

    How Does LSD Work

    Some Consequences of LSD's Introduction to Psychiatry

    Chapter II B. Ololiuqui: The Ancient Aztec Narcotic

    History and Identification

    Taxonomy of Convolvulaceae Containing Ergot Alkaloids

    Chemistry

    Psychological Properties

    References

    Chapter III. Adrenochrome and Some of Its Derivatives

    Introduction

    Chemistry

    Chemical Properties

    Biochemical Properties

    Formation and Metabolism of Adrenochrome

    Psychological Properties of Adrenochrome

    Adrenolutin

    Prolonged Reactions to Adrenochrome and Adrenolutin

    Anxiety and Adrenochrome

    Anxiety and Adrenolutin

    5,6-Dihydroxy-N-Methylindole

    Adrenochrome Monosemicarbazone

    References

    Chapter IV. Indole Hallucinogens Derived from Tryptophan

    Introduction

    Tryptophan

    Tryptamine

    Cohoba, the Narcotic Snuff of Ancient Haiti

    Dimethyl- and Diethyltryptamines

    Effect of Bufotenine, Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), and Diethyltryptamine (DET) on Animal Behavior

    Cross-Tolerance of DMT

    α-Methyltryptamine

    α-Ethyltryptamine

    Methyl-2-Methyltryptamine

    Iboga Alkaloids

    Harmine

    Psilocybin

    Yohimbine

    How Tryptamine Hallucinogens Act

    Serotonin

    Drugs and Central Serotonin or Noradrenaline

    References

    Chapter V. Hallucinogens Related to Parasympathetic Biochemistry

    Introduction

    Factors Which Produce Synaptic Depression

    Factors Which Produce Excitation

    Acetylcholine

    Acetylcholinesterase

    Anticholinesterases as Hallucinogens

    Cholinergic-Blocking Hallucinogens

    Benactyzine

    Cholineacetylase Inhibitors as Antihallucinogens

    Anesthetic Hallucinogens

    References

    Chapter VI. Taraxein

    Introduction

    Biochemistry of Taraxein

    Psychological Properties

    How Does Taraxein Work

    References

    Chapter VII. Animal Studies of Hallucinogenic Drugs

    Introduction

    Studies in Invertebrates

    Lower Vertebrates

    Higher Vertebrates

    General Effect of Hallucinogenic Drugs Introduced Intrasystemically

    Intracerebral Effect of Hallucinogenic Drugs

    Behavioral Correlates of Electrophysiological Effects of Hallucinogens

    Effects of Hallucinogenic Drugs on Learning and Other Higher Cognitive Functions

    Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 636
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1967
  • Published: January 1, 1967
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261690

About the Authors

A. Hoffer

H. Osmond

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