The Hallucinogens - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483232966, 9781483261690

The Hallucinogens

1st Edition

Authors: A. Hoffer H. Osmond
eBook ISBN: 9781483261690
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1967
Page Count: 636
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Description

The Hallucinogens attempts to provide a detailed description of the hallucinogens in a single volume. Hallucinogens are chemicals which in nontoxic doses produce changes in perception, in thought, and in mood, but which seldom produce mental confusion, memory loss, or disorientation for person, place, and time. These latter changes are characteristic of organic brain reactions following intoxications with alcohol, anesthetics, and other toxic drugs. The book covers the following hallucinogens: plant ß-phenethylamines, d-lysergic acid diethylamide, ololiuqui, indole hallucinogens derived from tryptophan, and taraxein. The discussions include their chemistry, biochemistry, and neurophysiological effects. The final chapter deals with animal studies with hallucinogenic drugs. This work has been written for chemists, biochemists, psychologists, sociologists, and research physicians. While it cannot satisfy each group fully, it is sufficiently comprehensive and well documented so that each group can use it as a springboard for future enquiry into these fascinating chemicals.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter I. Plant ß-Phenethylamines

Introduction

Mescaline

Mescaline Analogs

Amphetamines

Methylenedioxyamphetamines

Asarone

Kava Kava

Safrole

Sympathomimetic Amines

References

Chapter II A. d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

Introduction

Sources of LSD

Chemistry of LSD

Pharmacology

Biochemistry of LSD

Neurophysiological Effects

Comparison of Some Ergot Alkaloids for Psychotomimetic Activity

Toxicology of LSD

Complications When LSD is Given

Dose and Psychological Activity

Effect of LSD on Normal Subjects

Psychotomimetic Reaction to LSD

The Psychedelic Experience

Effect of LSD on Schizophrenic Patients

Use of LSD in Psychotherapy

Rapid Personality Change and LSD

Criticisms of LSD Therapy and Rebuttal

Modifiers of the LSD Experience

How Does LSD Work

Some Consequences of LSD's Introduction to Psychiatry

Chapter II B. Ololiuqui: The Ancient Aztec Narcotic

History and Identification

Taxonomy of Convolvulaceae Containing Ergot Alkaloids

Chemistry

Psychological Properties

References

Chapter III. Adrenochrome and Some of Its Derivatives

Introduction

Chemistry

Chemical Properties

Biochemical Properties

Formation and Metabolism of Adrenochrome

Psychological Properties of Adrenochrome

Adrenolutin

Prolonged Reactions to Adrenochrome and Adrenolutin

Anxiety and Adrenochrome

Anxiety and Adrenolutin

5,6-Dihydroxy-N-Methylindole

Adrenochrome Monosemicarbazone

References

Chapter IV. Indole Hallucinogens Derived from Tryptophan

Introduction

Tryptophan

Tryptamine

Cohoba, the Narcotic Snuff of Ancient Haiti

Dimethyl- and Diethyltryptamines

Effect of Bufotenine, Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), and Diethyltryptamine (DET) on Animal Behavior

Cross-Tolerance of DMT

α-Methyltryptamine

α-Ethyltryptamine

Methyl-2-Methyltryptamine

Iboga Alkaloids

Harmine

Psilocybin

Yohimbine

How Tryptamine Hallucinogens Act

Serotonin

Drugs and Central Serotonin or Noradrenaline

References

Chapter V. Hallucinogens Related to Parasympathetic Biochemistry

Introduction

Factors Which Produce Synaptic Depression

Factors Which Produce Excitation

Acetylcholine

Acetylcholinesterase

Anticholinesterases as Hallucinogens

Cholinergic-Blocking Hallucinogens

Benactyzine

Cholineacetylase Inhibitors as Antihallucinogens

Anesthetic Hallucinogens

References

Chapter VI. Taraxein

Introduction

Biochemistry of Taraxein

Psychological Properties

How Does Taraxein Work

References

Chapter VII. Animal Studies of Hallucinogenic Drugs

Introduction

Studies in Invertebrates

Lower Vertebrates

Higher Vertebrates

General Effect of Hallucinogenic Drugs Introduced Intrasystemically

Intracerebral Effect of Hallucinogenic Drugs

Behavioral Correlates of Electrophysiological Effects of Hallucinogens

Effects of Hallucinogenic Drugs on Learning and Other Higher Cognitive Functions

Summary and Conclusions

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
636
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1967
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483261690

About the Author

A. Hoffer

H. Osmond