The Genus Citrus - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128121634

The Genus Citrus

1st Edition

Editors: Manuel Talon Fred Gmitter, jr. Marco Caruso
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128121634
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 1st October 2018
Page Count: 720
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The Genus Citrus presents the enormous amount of new knowledge that has been generated in recent years in practically all topics related to citrus. Beginning with an overview of the fundamental principles and understanding of citrus biology and behavior, the book provides a comprehensive view from Citrus evolution through to current market importance. Reporting on new insights supported by the elucidation of the citrus genome sequence, it presents ground-breaking theories and fills in previous knowledge gaps.

Because citrus is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding, citrus researchers, institutions and industries have to learn quickly to adapt to new developments, knowledge and technologies to address the biological constraints of a unique fruit-tree such as citrus. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, tremendous progress has been made, mostly through advances in molecular biology and genomics.

This book is valuable for all those involved with researching and advancing, producing, processing and delivering citrus products.

Key Features

  • Includes the most current information on citrus genomic information
  • Provides the first detailed description of citrus origin, a new proposal for citrus taxonomy, and a redefinition of the genus Citrus
  • Details citrus challenges including climate change, global disease impacts, and plant improvement strategies


Students and researchers focused on citrus, citriculture, and horticulture

Table of Contents

1. The citrus genome. Breakthrough developments in citrus genomics, especially a full description of the citrus genome. Impact on citrus research and in particular in taxonomy since a reformulated proposal based on genome sequencing can be presented
2. The origin of citrus. First time description of citrus origin, chronogram, spatio-temporal framework and geological, geographic and climatological causes of origin. Phylogeny of citrus Biogeography. Radiations and evolution. Natural dispersal
3. Domestication and history. First domestication hypotheses. Citrus in ancient China, Japan and India. Citrus introduction and diversification in the Western Hemisphere. Current distribution.

5. The genus Citrus. Definition of the genus citrus. Botanical and physiological description of pure species, hybrids, genetic admixtures and citrus related species. Horticultural classifications
6. Commercial scion varieties. Description of major citrus varieties, their characteristics, distribution and commercial value.
7. Commercial rootstocks. Description of major citrus rootstocks, their characteristics, distribution and commercial value

8. Vegetative growth. Regulation of vegetative growth, including seeds, seedlings, bud and shoot development, dormancy, photosynthesis, anatomy of leaves and roots, leaf growth and development, plant growth regulators and gene expression.
9. Flowering and fruit set. Flower and developing fruit anatomy, regulation and control of reproductive growth, flowering, alternate bearing, fruit setting, plant growth regulators and gene expression.
10. Fruit growth and ripening. Fruit anatomy and development, physiology and biochemistry of citrus fruits, fruit quality and productivity, characteristics of citrus fruits, regulation and control of fruit abscission and gene expression. 

11. Climate change. Climatic considerations, limits to citrus growth, constraints on vegetative and reproductive development, high temperature, humidity, rainfalls, wind, day length and light, frost and freezes.  
12.  Salinity and water stress. Salinity components, sodium and chloride ions, water deficits, effect on vegetative and reproductive growth, mechanisms of tolerance and adaptation and variety and rootstock performances and tolerances.
13.  Soil and nutrition interactions Soil composition, organic matter, pH, mineral deficiencies, effect on vegetative and reproductive growth, adaptation and variety and rootstock performances and tolerances

14. Insects and pests. Main pests, agents, symptoms and control, pest status, recent development, biological control
15. Fungal pathogens. Main pathogenic agents, symptoms, control, recent developments, Alternaria, Phytophthora… etc
16. Bacterial pathogens Main pathogenic agents, symptoms, control, recent developments, Citrus canker, Huanglonbing… etc
17. Virus and viroids.  Main pathogenic agents, symptoms, control, recent developments, Tristeza, Exocortis … etc

18. Traditional breeding. Spontaneous mutations, mutation breeding, seedlessness, chimeras, apomixis, nucellar embryony, polyploidy, hybridizations, somatic hybridization, crossings and selection, breeding programs.
19. Genomic breeding. Genomic selection, genotyping by sequencing, genome wide association studies, marker-assisted selection, genome editing.
20.  Biotechnological approaches. Molecular markers, tissue culture, genetic transformation of citrus, virus-induced gene silencing, disease resistance genes, fruit quality genes.

21. Culture and management. Mineral nutrition, orchard planning, irrigation and water use, treatments, soil management, tree size control, growth regulators, ecological management
22. Pre- and Post-harvest technologies. Mechanical harvesting, shelf life, physiology and biochemistry of fruit quality, storage, (rot, decay, mold), controlled atmospheres, pesticides and organically produced fruits, low temperatures, temperature and relative humidity control, innovations and  breakthrough technologies 

23.  Marketing and trade. Citrus production, consumption and stocks, global trade perspectives, fresh fruit markets, processed citrus fruits markets, citrus juices and by-products
24. Citrus and health. Quality factors of citrus fruits and juices, active components and principles, health benefits of citrus, human disease prevention


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© Woodhead Publishing 2019
Woodhead Publishing
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About the Editor

Manuel Talon

Head of the Centro de Genomica at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (Valencia, Spain). His main area of expertise is related to citrus genomics and physiology, with main emphasis on fruit growth development and abiotic stresses. He has been awarded with two national first prizes on agricultural research

Affiliations and Expertise

Centro de Genomica Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Valencia, Spain

Fred Gmitter, jr.

A University of Florida Research Foundation Professor, located at the Citrus Research and Education Center (UF-CREC). He has worked on citrus breeding, genetics, and genomics for more than 30 years. Research topics have included development of marker-assisted selection tools; host-pathogen interactions; genetic control of fruit color, flavor and aroma; disease resistance; and market/consumer-driven approaches to citrus breeding. He led the International Citrus Genome Consortium to release the first publicly available whole genome sequence resources in 2011.

Affiliations and Expertise

UF Research Foundation Professor, Leader, International Citrus Genome Consortium, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Citrus Research and Education Center, FL, USA

Marco Caruso

Researcher at the Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA, Italy), qualified as an Associate Professor (Italian National Academic Qualification) in fruit tree culture. In the past decade, he has worked on citrus genetics and functional genomics in relation to reproductive biology and fruit ripening. He is leading the breeding program at CREA and is also involved in the development of molecular markers for citrus clonal fingerprinting.

Affiliations and Expertise

Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria - Centro di ricerca per l’agrumicoltura e le colture Mediterranee (CREA-ACM), Acireale (CT), Italy

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