The Future Supply of Nature-Made Petroleum and Gas - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080217352, 9781483181974

The Future Supply of Nature-Made Petroleum and Gas

1st Edition

Technical Reports

Editors: R. F. Meyer
eBook ISBN: 9781483181974
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 1086
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Description

The Future Supply of Nature-made Petroleum and Gas Technical Reports is a collection of papers that covers various issues and concerns in the world petroleum supply. The materials in the book are organized thematically into sections. The text first covers the world perspectives of conventional petroleum, and then proceeds to discussing the classification of petroleum resources. Section III deals with the conventional oil and gas deposits, while Section IV talks about enhanced oil recovery. Next, the selection deals with gases in tight formations, along with tar sand, heavy oil, and oil shale deposits. The eighth section tackles gases in geopressured reservoirs, while the ninth section details other unconventional petroleum and gas deposits. The last section deals with concerns in technology transfer of petroleum and gas technology. The book will be of great use to researchers and practitioners in disciplines involved in the petroleum industry.

Table of Contents

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE FOR THE CONFERENCE

PARTICIPANTS IN THE CONFERENCE

FOREWORD

PREFACE

LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND CONVERSION FACTORS

ILLUSTRATIONS

SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION: THE FUTURE SUPPLY OF NATURE-MADE PETROLEUM AND GAS

SECTION I: WORLD PERSPECTIVES ON CONVENTIONAL PETROLEUM

Chapter 1: OCCURRENCE OF PETROLEUM

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

DEFINITION AND COMPOSITION

ORIGIN

SOURCE-BED IDENTIFICATION

SECONDARY MIGRATION AND ENTRAPMENT

SUMMARY

Chapter 2: THE PETROLEUM EXPLORATION CHALLENGE WITH RESPECT TO THE DEVELOPING NATIONS

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

THE OUTCOME OF PAST PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT

SCHEME FOR ASSESSING PETROLEUM OPPORTUNITIES

PETROLEUM PROSPECTIVE AREAS

CUMULATIVE PETROLEUM DRILLING IN VARIOUS REGIONS

DENSITY OF PETROLEUM DRILLING IN VARIOUS REGIONS

WINDOW ON OIL CHART

FINAL COMMENTS

Chapter 3: TOTAL ENERGY RESOURCE EVALUATION AS PART OF FUTURE OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION

Publisher Summary

Chapter 4: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

RESOURCES AND RESERVES OF PETROLEUM

INTERDEPENDENT EXPLORATION TECHNIQUES

ECONOMICS AND GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT

Chapter 5: THE POTENTIAL AND TIME FRAME FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLEUM IN THE DEEP OCEAN

ABSTRACT

CONTINENTAL SHELVES

SMALL MARGINAL BASINS

CONTINENTAL RISES

ABYSSAL PLAINS AND LOWER CONTINENTAL RISES

DIAPIRS

CONCLUSIONS

SECTION II: PETROLEUM RESOURCE CLASSIFICATION

Chapter 6: IMPLICATIONS OF CHANGING OIL PRICES ON RESOURCE EVALUATIONS

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

THE HISTORY OF RESOURCE ESTIMATES

THE RESOURCE CUBE CONCEPT

DISCOVERY RATES

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPLORATORY EFFORT AND AMOUNT OF PROVED RESERVES

RECOVERY RATES

THE CHANGE IN OIL PRICES

POTENTIAL EFFECT ON DISCOVERY AND RECOVERY RATE

CONCLUSION

Chapter 7: METHODS USED IN THE USSR FOR ESTIMATING POTENTIAL PETROLEUM RESOURCES

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

METHODS BASED UPON THE ANALOGY PRINCIPLE

VOLUME-GENETIC METHOD

HISTORICAL-STATISTICAL METHODS

CONCLUSION

Chapter 8: STUDY OF PETROLEUM ZONES: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE APPRAISAL OF HYDROCARBON RESOURCES

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

THE PETROLEUM ZONE

PARAMETERS OF PETROLEUM ZONES

SIMILARITY STUDIES

CORRELATION STUDIES

MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS

MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS

APPLICATION OF THE PZ STUDY

CONCLUSION

Chapter 9: UNITED NATIONS ACTIVITIES IN THE CLASSIFICATION AND MEASUREMENT OF OIL AND GAS RESOURCES

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROCARBON RESOURCES AND RESERVES

ACTIVITIES IN THE CLASSIFICATION AND MEASUREMENT OF OIL AND GAS RESOURCES

CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 10: PRESENT AND FUTURE HYDROCARBON RESOURCES OF THE EARTH’S CRUST

Publisher Summary

Chapter 11: NATURE-MADE PETROLEUM AND GAS IN PLACE: METHODS OF MEASUREMENT AND RELIABILITY OF MEASUREMENTS

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

DETERMINATION OF IN-PLACE HYDROCARBON RESERVES FOR INDIVIDUAL RESERVOIRS

OIL AND GAS RESERVOIRS

IN-PLACE RESOURCES OF OIL FROM TAR SANDS

IN-PLACE OIL RESOURCES FROM OIL SHALE

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

SECTION III: CONVENTIONAL OIL AND GAS DEPOSITS

Chapter 12: WORLD OIL AND GAS RESERVES FROM ANALYSIS OF GIANT FIELDS AND PETROLEUM BASINS (PROVINCES)

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

BASIN CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS

CRATONIC BASINS

INTERMEDIATE CRUSTAL BASINS (Mobile Zone)

OCEANIC BASINS

EVOLUTION OF BASIN TYPES

TRAPS

RESERVOIRS

SOURCES

CAP ROCKS

REASONS FOR PRODUCTIVITY OF BASINS

TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

HISTORY OF THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY IN RELATION TO BASIN DEVELOPMENT

RELATIONSHIP OF BASIN CHARACTERISTICS TO FUTURE WORLD RESERVES AND ULTIMATE RESOURCES OF CONVENTIONAL RECOVERABLE OIL AND GAS

SUMMARY

Chapter 13: GAS FROM CONVENTIONAL OIL FIELDS

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

PETROLEUM POLICY

PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

FUTURE PETROLEUM RESERVES

PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

RESERVES ASSESSMENT

PETROLEUM EXPLOITATION

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Chapter 14: GAS FROM CONVENTIONAL GAS FIELDS

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

WORLD PETROLEUM RESERVES

CLASSIFICATION OF CONVENTIONAL GAS RESERVOIRS

VOLUMETRIC DEPLETION GAS AND GAS-CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS

WATER DRIVE GAS AND GAS-CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS

RETROGRADE GAS-CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS

GAS CYCLING OF GAS-CONDENSATE RESERVOIRS

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Chapter 15: THE POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTION OF SMALL OIL AND GAS DEPOSITS

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

DEFINITIONS

SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF DEPOSITS

ABANDONED RESERVOIRS

DEVELOPMENT FACTORS

SUMMARY

Chapter 16: PETROLEUM POTENTIAL OF SEDIMENTARY BASINS IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

LATIN AMERICA

AFRICA

MIDDLE EAST

SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA

SUMMARY

Chapter 17: UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA (ECA): SUMMARY OF ITS ACTIVITIES IN THE FIELD OF PETROLEUM

Publisher Summary

Chapter 18: INVESTMENT STRATEGIES FOR MAXIMIZING OIL RESERVES’ RECOVERY FROM MAJOR OFF-SHORE FIELDS

Publisher Summary

Conclusion

Chapter 19: AN R&D EFFORT FOR OIL PRODUCTION IN DEEP WATER

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGY

AN APPROACH TOWARD PRODUCTION AT GREATER DEPTH

Chapter 20: STATUS OF THE USSR NATURAL GAS INDUSTRIAL POTENTIAL AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

Publisher Summary

Chapter 21: DISTRIBUTION OF POTENTIAL HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN THE USSR AND ITS BEARING ON PROSPECT EVALUATION

Publisher Summary

PROVINCES

ISOLATED REGIONS

Chapter 22: EVALUATION METHODS OF HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL RESERVES IN EAST SIBERIA

Publisher Summary

SECTION IV: ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

Chapter 23: ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY: WHAT OF THE FUTURE?

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

DISPLACEMENT EFFICIENCY

RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY

STRATIGRAPHIC CONTINUITY

PETROFABRICS

DEVELOPMENT AND CONTROL

LIMITATIONS OF ENHANCED RECOVERY

NEW TECHNOLOGICAL HOPES

Chapter 24: SECONDARY RECOVERY OF OIL

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

THE NEED FOR SECONDARY RECOVERY

OIL DISPLACEMENT BY WATER OR GAS

SECONDARY RECOVERY EFFICIENCIES

CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 25: SECONDARY RECOVERY OPERATIONS OF OeMV-AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF POOLS

WATER TREATMENT AND INJECTORS

METHOD OF PROPOSAL OF WATERFLOODING

SUMMARY

Chapter 26: TERTIARY OIL RECOVERY: HOW COME IT’S CALLED THAT?

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

EARLY HISTORY

PRIMARY RECOVERY

SECONDARY RECOVERY

TERTIARY RECOVERY

Chapter 27: ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY IS AN IMPORTANT WAY TO INCREASE OIL RESOURCES

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

RESERVOIR CYCLIC STIMULATION

SURFACTANT FLOOD

CO2 FLOOD

POLYMER FLOOD

DISPLACEMENT OF OIL BY HIGH-PRESSURE GAS AND GAS-WATER MIXTURE

DISPLACEMENT OF OIL BY STEAM COMBINED WITH WATERFLOOD

RECOVERY OF OIL BY COMBINATION OF WATERFLOOD AND IN SITU COMBUSTION (WET COMBUSTION)

HOT WATERFLOOD

MICELLAR FLOOD

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 28: TERTIARY OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES: PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES AND POTENTIALITIES

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

RESIDUAL OIL AS TERTIARY TARGET

POLYMER FLOODING

FOAM DRIVE

SURFACTANT SOLUTIONS

MICELLAR SOLUTIONS (MICROEMULSIONS)

MISCIBLE DRIVES

CARBON DIOXIDE DRIVE

THERMAL PROCESSES

CONCLUSION

Chapter 29: TERTIARY RECOVERY OF CRUDE OIL

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

THE LIMITS ON DISCOVERING NEW CRUDE OIL RESOURCES

WATER FLOODING AND RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

TARGETS FOR TERTIARY RECOVERY

THE MECHANICS OF APPLYING TERTIARY RECOVERY TO CATEGORY 1 RESERVOIRS

THE MECHANICS OF APPLYING TERTIARY RECOVERY TO CATEGORY 2 RESERVOIRS

THE MECHANICS OF APPLYING TERTIARY RECOVERY TO CATEGORY 3 RESERVOIRS

CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 30: POTENTIAL AND ECONOMICS OF ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

Publisher Summary

Summary of the Current Status of the Technology

STUDY METHODOLOGY

OIL RECOVERY AND ECONOMIC MODELS

Assumptions Common to All the Models

Assumptions That Vary by Each Technique

ESTIMATING RECOVERY FOR STEAM DRIVE

PRELIMINARY FINDINGS

DETAILED FINDINGS

CONSTRAINTS

ACCOUNTING FOR THE RISKY AND UNPROVEN NATURE OF THE TECHNOLOGY

ACCOUNTING FOR OTHER ECONOMIC COSTS

SUMMARY

Chapter 31: TERTIARY RECOVERY OF CRUDE OIL

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

TERMINOLOGY

CHARACTERISTICS

PROCESSES

FIELD EXPERIENCE

ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

CONCLUSIONS

APPENDIX A# CLASSIFICATION OF FLUID INJECTION PROCESSES FOR OIL RECOVERY

APPENDIX B

APPENDIX C ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

Chapter 32: A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO THE ASSESSMENT OF A NATION’S OIL SUPPLY ADDITIONS THROUGH ENHANCED RECOVERY METHODS

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

PHASE 1 – PROSPECT SCREENING

PHASE 2 – PRE-PILOT EVALUATION

PHASE 3 – FIELD PILOT TEST

COMMERCIAL VENTURE DECISION

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Chapter 33: A REVIEW OF THERMAL RECOVERY APPLICATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

IN SITU COMBUSTION

CONTINUOUS STEAM INJECTION

CYCLIC STEAM INJECTION

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Chapter 34: IN SITU COMBUSTION METHOD FOR OIL RECOVERY STATE OF THE ART AND POTENTIAL

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

THE BASIC PROCESSES

PROCESS LIMITATIONS AND CAPABILITIES

FUTURE POTENTIAL

CONCLUDING REMARKS

NOTICE

Chapter 35: LOGISTIC RESTRAINTS FOR THE FUTURE PRODUCTION OF PETROLEUM BY TERTIARY RECOVERY

Publisher Summary

SURFACTANT METHODS

CARBON DIOXIDE FLOODING

THERMAL DRIVE

MOBILITY CONTROL AGENTS AND OTHER CHEMICALS

EQUIPMENT SUPPLY AND PLANT CONSTRUCTION

MANPOWER

THE IMPACT OF CRUDE OIL PRICES

CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

SECTION V: GAS IN TIGHT FORMATIONS

Chapter 36: THE RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF GAS IN TIGHT FORMATIONS

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

DEFINITIONS

RESOURCES

NUCLEAR FRACTURING

CHEMICAL EXPLOSIVE FRACTURING

MASSIVE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING (MHF)

SUMMARY

Chapter 37: GAS IN TIGHT FORMATIONS

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

HISTORICAL SUMMARY

ECONOMICS OF PRODUCTION FOR VARIOUS PERMEABILITIES

ECONOMICS OF PRODUCTION FOR VARIOUS SIZES OF STIMULATION TREATMENT

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Chapter 38: DEVONIAN SHALE PRODUCTION EASTERN KENTUCKY FIELD

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

GEOLOGIC SETTING

LITHOLOGY

MODE OF GAS OCCURRENCE

DEVELOPMENT--EASTERN KENTUCKY FIELD

STIMULATION PRACTICE

DELIVERY PERFORMANCE HYDRAULIC FRACTURED SHALE WELLS

COMPLETION COSTS

CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 39: CURRENT STATUS OF PROJECTS GASBUGGY, RULISON, AND RIO BLANCO AND AN APPRAISAL OF NUCLEAR-EXPLOSIVE FRACTURING POTENTIAL FOR THE NEAR FUTURE

Chapter 40: ADVANCED STIMULATION SYSTEMS APPLIED TO MASSIVE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING--TECHNIQUES AND RESULTS

Publisher Summary

SECTION VI: TAR SAND, HEAVY OIL, AND OIL SHALE DEPOSITS

Chapter 41: DEVELOPMENT STATUS OF ALBERTA OIL SANDS--1976

PART A WORLD-WIDE OIL SAND RESERVES

PART B THE ALBERTA SEARCH FOR NEW TECHNOLOGY

PART C AN OVERVIEW OF CANADA’S FIRST COMMERCIAL SURFACE MINING EXTRACTION PLANT

PART D OIL SANDS DEVELOPMENT RISKS, ECONOMICS, AND OUTLOOK

Chapter 42: ACTIVITY ON THE PRODUCTION OF ENERGY FROM TAR SANDS OF THE UNITED STATES

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

DEFINITION OF TAR SAND

U.S. TAR SAND RESOURCE

EARLY TAR SAND PRODUCTION EFFORTS

IN SITU RECOVERY OF OIL FROM TAR SANDS

ERDA TAR SAND RESEARCH

Tar Sand Characteristics

OTHER CURRENT U.S. TAR SAND OIL PRODUCTION EFFORTS

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

NOTICE

Chapter 43: HEAVY CRUDES OF VENEZUELA: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE FUTURE

Publisher Summary

SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION

EXPLORATION AND EVALUATION METHODOLOGY

PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

UPGRADING OF HEAVY CRUDE OILS

Volatile Components

Vacuum Oils

Resins

Asphaltenes

INTEGRATION OF HEAVY CRUDE PRODUCTION AND UPGRADING SYSTEM

THE CHALLENGE

PLAN FOR THE UTILIZATION OF VENEZUELAN HEAVY CRUDES

Chapter 44: ENHANCED RECOVERY OF HEAVY OIL IN CALIFORNIA

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

THE HEAVY OIL RESOURCE

METHODS OF ENHANCED RECOVERY

STATE OF THE ART

CONCLUDING STATEMENT

NOTICE

Chapter 45: STIMULATING RECOVERY FROM HEAVY OIL RESOURCES--MID-CONTINENT AREA

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY OIL

ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION (ERDA) RESEARCH

HEAVY-OIL RECOVERY TEST SITE

FORMATION PROPERTIES

CORE-SOLVENT EXPERIMENTS

PRODUCTION

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

NOTICE

Chapter 46: MULTIPURPOSE UTILIZATION OF OIL SHALE

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

PROCESSING OIL SHALE

SHALE OIL

CONCLUSIONS

NOTICE

Chapter 47: GLOBAL OIL-SHALE RESOURCES AND COSTS

OIL-SHALE RESOURCES

Chapter 48: RESEARCH IN BITUMINOUS SHALE IN FRANCE

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

GEOLOGICAL COVERAGE OF BITUMINOUS ROCKS IN FRANCE (INCLUDING TOARCIAN SHALE)

THE PROGRAMME

USE OF SHALES AS USEFUL SUBSTANCES

CONCLUSIONS

SECTION VII: GAS IN GEOPRESSURED RESERVOIRS

Chapter 49: THE SUPPLY OF NATURAL GAS FROM GEOPRESSURED ZONES: ENGINEERING AND COSTS

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

EXTENT OF THE RESOURCE

NATURAL GAS RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS

TIMETABLE FOR DEVELOPMENT

Chapter 50: GAS IN GEOPRESSURED ZONES

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

GEOPRESSURED ZONES

HYDROCARBON REGIME

RESOURCE IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT

WORLDWIDE OCCURRENCE

CONCLUSIONS

SECTION VIII: OTHER UNCONVENTIONAL DEPOSITS

Chapter 51: GEOCHEMICAL INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG FOSSIL FUELS, MARSH, AND LANDFILL GAS

Publisher Summary

Chapter 52: THE ROLE OF CONTINENTAL GLACIATION AND HYDRATE FORMATION ON PETROLEUM OCCURRENCE

Publisher Summary

Chapter 53: METHANE HYDRATE IN THE SEA FLOOR--A SIGNIFICANT RESOURCE?

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

GAS HYDRATE IN RECOVERED SUBMARINE CORES

INDICATIONS OF HYDRATE FROM SEISMIC SURVEYING AND DEEP SEA DRILLING

NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR THE ACCUMULATION OF HYDRATE

CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 54: METHANE GAS RECOVERY FROM LANDFILLS--A WORLDWIDE PERSPECTIVE

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

THE ECONOMICS OF NATURAL GAS IN THE UNITED STATES

MARKETABILITY OF LANDFILL GAS

THE MOUNTAIN VIEW, CALIFORNIA, PROJECT

GAS QUALITY AND PUMPING CONDITIONS

TREATMENT PROCESSES

ECONOMICS OF GAS CLEANING

GLOBAL POTENTIAL

SUMMARY

Chapter 55: APPRAISAL OF MARSH GAS AS A POTENTIAL DOMESTIC NATURAL GAS RESOURCE IN THE UNITED STATES

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

CONCLUSIONS

MECHANISM OF GAS GENERATION

GAS PRODUCTION RATE DATA

SECTION IX: TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

Chapter 56: TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: IMPACTS AND IMPLICATIONS OF PROSPECTS OF FUTURE AVAILABILITY OF OIL

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

CONTENT OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

PETROLEUM AND GAS TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

IMPACTS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE FUTURE AVAILABILITY OF OIL

CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 57: TRANSFER AND DISSEMINATION OF OIL AND GAS TECHNOLOGY

Publisher Summary

INTRODUCTION

AREAS OR SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

INDUSTRIAL SECTOR OR PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

INSTRUMENTS OF TRANSFER

CHANNELS FOR TRANSFER

IMPLEMENTATION OF TRANSFER

PROPRIETARY DATA

CONCLUSION

APPENDIX: ESTIMATES OF UNDISCOVERED PETROLEUM RESOURCES–A PERSPECTIVE

AUTHOR INDEX

SUBJECT INDEX

Details

No. of pages:
1086
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1977
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483181974

About the Editor

R. F. Meyer