List of contributors. Introduction (K.T. Leicht). The Legal, Organizational, and Historical Context of Affirmative Action. The historical foundations of affirmative action 1961-1971 (N. Pedriana). Political culture wars 1990s style: the drum beat of quotas in media framing of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 (R. Stryker et al.). Symbols and substance in organizational response to Civil Rights Law (L.B. Edelman, S.M. Petterson). Gender, Race, and the Organizational Context of Affirmative Action. Degendered jobs? Organizational processes and gender segregated employment (D. Tomaskovic-Devey, S. Skaggs). Progress at the employment gates? Affirmative action and earnings gaps among human resource managers (J.E. Manley, P.A. Roos). More glory and less injustice: the glass ceiling in Sweden, 1970-1990 (T. Petersen, E.M. Meyersson). Affirmative Action: A View from the Front. Framing sociology in court: affirmative action discourse and expert opinion on employment discrimination (W.T. Bielby). Bias in standardized educational and employment tests as justification for racial preferences in affirmative action programs (F.L. Schmidt, J.E. Hunter). Affirmative action and the ideal of "justice for all" (B.B. Aldave). Beyond affirmative action: algorithmic versus holistic approaches to college admissions (T.A. Sullivan).