The Fine Structure of Algal Cells - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122191503, 9780323158237

The Fine Structure of Algal Cells

1st Edition

Authors: John D. Dodge
eBook ISBN: 9780323158237
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1973
Page Count: 274
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Description

The Fine Structure of Algal Cells is a hybrid between a review and a comprehensive descriptive work on fine structure of algae. Such fine structural data are important for any consideration of the classification of algae and for attempting to analyze their phylogenetic relationships. ”Fine-structure” has provided many vital keys to the understanding of the interrelationships and phylogeny of the algae. Notably, the trend in algal fine structure work is toward use of electron microscopy to try to understand the functions of cells and organelles under both normal and experimental conditions. This book brings together information which has been gathered by electron microscopists. It considers 13 classes of algae: Chlorophyceae, Haptophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chloromonadophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Dinophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Rhodophyceae, and Chrysophyceae. It covers the main structural features of the various classes and the organelles present in typical cells. The book also describes the algal cell covering, flagella, pyrenoid, eyespot, nucleus, and ejectile organelles,as well as membranes, envelope, and stroma of algal chloroplasts. Lastly, it also explains the algal cell division. This book will help students visualize and compare algal structure, and at the same time provide enough references so that research workers can enter the literature to find out more precise details from the original sources.

Table of Contents


Introduction

1. A General Account of the Structure of Algal Cells

I. Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms)

II. Chloromonadophyceae (Raphidophyceae)

III. Chlorophyceae (Green Algae)

A. Zygnemaphyceae

B. Oedogoniophyceae

C. Bryopsidophyceae

D. Chlorophyceae (sensu Round)

IV. Chrysophyceae (Golden Algae)

V. Cryptophyceae

VI. Dinophyceae (Dinoflagellates)

VII. Euglenophyceae

VIII. Eustigmatophyceae

IX. Haptophyceae

X. Phaeophyceae (Brown Algae)

XI. Prasinophyceae

XII. Rhodophyceae (Red Algae)

XIII. Xanthophyceae (Yellow-Green Algae)

2. The Cell Covering

I. Naked membrane

II. Modifications within the Plasma-Membrane

A. Cryptophyceae—Periplast

B. Euglenophyceae—Pellicle

C. The Dinophyceae—Theca

III. Scaly Covering Outside Cell Membrane

A. Scales of Organic Material

B. Calcite Scales

C. Silica Scales

D. Scale Formation

IV. The Diatom Frustule

V. The Cell Wall

A. Incomplete Walls (such as the Lorica)

B. Complete Cell Walls

C. Calcified Algal Walls

D. Plasmodesmata in Algal Cell Walls

E. Cell Wall Formation

3. Flagella and Associated Structures

I. External Features

A. Smooth Flagella

B. Flagella with Single Row of Hairs (Stichonematic)

C. Flagella with Two Rows of Hairs (Pantonematic)

D. Flagella Bearing Spines

E. Scaly Flagella

II. Internal Structure of Flagella

A. The Free Part

B. The Transition Zone

C. The Flagellar Base, Basal Body or Kinetoplast

III. Flagellar Roots

IV. The Origin of Flagellar Hairs

V. Pseudocilia

VI. The Haptonema

4. Chloroplasts (Plastids)

I. Chloroplast Structure

A. Structure of the Thylakoid

B. Arrangement of the Thylakoids

C. The Chloroplast Stroma or Matrix

D. The Chloroplast Envelope and Endoplasmic Reticulum Sheath

II. Unusual Chloroplast Structure in Mutants, etc

III. Chloroplast Development

IV. Chloroplast Division

V. Chloroplasts as Symbionts

5. The Pyrenoid

I. Types of Pyrenoid

A. Simple Internal Pyrenoid

B. Compound Internal Pyrenoid

C. Stalked Pyrenoids

D. Pyrenoid with Nuclear or Cytoplasmic Invaginations

E. Pyrenoid Entirely Embedded in a Starch-containing Chloroplast

II. The Pyrenoid Matrix

III. The Development of Pyrenoids

IV. Pyrenoids and Taxonomy

6. TheEyespot

I. The Types of Eyespot

II. The Development and Replication of Eyespots

III. Eyespot Structure and Taxonomy

IV. The Function of the Eyespot

7. The Nucleus and Nuclear Division

I. The Interphase Nucleus

A. Nuclear Envelope

B. Nucleolus

C. Chromatin

II. Nuclear Division—Mitosis

A. Chlorophyceae

B. Phaeophyceae

C. Chloromonadophyceae

D. Haptophyceae

E. Chrysophyceae

F. Bacillariophyceae

G. Xanthophyceae

H. Rhodophyceae

I. Euglenophyceae

J. Dinophyceae

K. Cryptophyceae

III. Nuclear Division—Meiosis

8. Cell Division (Cytokinesis)

I. Unicellular Algae

A. Flagellates

B. Desmids (Chlorophyceae)

C. Coccoid Algae (Chlorophyceae)

II. Multicellular Algae

A. Filaments

B. Parenchymatous Algae

9. Ejectile Organelles

I. Trichocysts in the Dinophyceae

II. Nematocysts (Cnidocysts) of Dinoflagellates

III. Ejectosomes of Cryptomonads

IV. Discobolocysts in the Chrysophyceae

V. Other Ejectile Organelles

10. Miscellaneous Organelles and Inclusions

I. Mitochondria

II. Golgi or Dictyosomes

III. The Contractile Vacuole

IV. The Pusule

V. Microbodies (Peroxisomes)

VI. Food Storage Materials

A. Polysaccharide

B. Lipids

C. Protein

VII. Polyphosphate Inclusions and Phosphatases

VIII. Virus-like Inclusions

IX. Membranous Extrusions and Inclusions, Digestion Vesicles

11. Reproductive Structures

I. Gamete Formation and Structure

A. Phaeophyceae

B. Bacillariophyceae

C. Xanthophyceae

D. Chlorophyceae

II. Gamete Fusion and Zygote Development

III. Spore Formation and Structure

IV. Encystment

12. Symbiosis

13. Experimental Ultrastructure Studies

I. Effects of Chemicals

II. Effects of Environmental Conditions

A. Nutrition

B. Light

C. Osmotic Potential

III. Senescence

14. Postscript: Fine Structure and Phylogeny

Review Articles and Books

References

Author Index

Subject Index




Details

No. of pages:
274
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1973
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323158237

About the Author

John D. Dodge