The Fine Structure of Algal Cells

The Fine Structure of Algal Cells

1st Edition - January 1, 1973

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  • Author: John D. Dodge
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323158237

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The Fine Structure of Algal Cells is a hybrid between a review and a comprehensive descriptive work on fine structure of algae. Such fine structural data are important for any consideration of the classification of algae and for attempting to analyze their phylogenetic relationships. ”Fine-structure” has provided many vital keys to the understanding of the interrelationships and phylogeny of the algae. Notably, the trend in algal fine structure work is toward use of electron microscopy to try to understand the functions of cells and organelles under both normal and experimental conditions. This book brings together information which has been gathered by electron microscopists. It considers 13 classes of algae: Chlorophyceae, Haptophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chloromonadophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Dinophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Rhodophyceae, and Chrysophyceae. It covers the main structural features of the various classes and the organelles present in typical cells. The book also describes the algal cell covering, flagella, pyrenoid, eyespot, nucleus, and ejectile organelles,as well as membranes, envelope, and stroma of algal chloroplasts. Lastly, it also explains the algal cell division. This book will help students visualize and compare algal structure, and at the same time provide enough references so that research workers can enter the literature to find out more precise details from the original sources.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction

    1. A General Account of the Structure of Algal Cells

    I. Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms)

    II. Chloromonadophyceae (Raphidophyceae)

    III. Chlorophyceae (Green Algae)

    A. Zygnemaphyceae

    B. Oedogoniophyceae

    C. Bryopsidophyceae

    D. Chlorophyceae (sensu Round)

    IV. Chrysophyceae (Golden Algae)

    V. Cryptophyceae

    VI. Dinophyceae (Dinoflagellates)

    VII. Euglenophyceae

    VIII. Eustigmatophyceae

    IX. Haptophyceae

    X. Phaeophyceae (Brown Algae)

    XI. Prasinophyceae

    XII. Rhodophyceae (Red Algae)

    XIII. Xanthophyceae (Yellow-Green Algae)

    2. The Cell Covering

    I. Naked membrane

    II. Modifications within the Plasma-Membrane

    A. Cryptophyceae—Periplast

    B. Euglenophyceae—Pellicle

    C. The Dinophyceae—Theca

    III. Scaly Covering Outside Cell Membrane

    A. Scales of Organic Material

    B. Calcite Scales

    C. Silica Scales

    D. Scale Formation

    IV. The Diatom Frustule

    V. The Cell Wall

    A. Incomplete Walls (such as the Lorica)

    B. Complete Cell Walls

    C. Calcified Algal Walls

    D. Plasmodesmata in Algal Cell Walls

    E. Cell Wall Formation

    3. Flagella and Associated Structures

    I. External Features

    A. Smooth Flagella

    B. Flagella with Single Row of Hairs (Stichonematic)

    C. Flagella with Two Rows of Hairs (Pantonematic)

    D. Flagella Bearing Spines

    E. Scaly Flagella

    II. Internal Structure of Flagella

    A. The Free Part

    B. The Transition Zone

    C. The Flagellar Base, Basal Body or Kinetoplast

    III. Flagellar Roots

    IV. The Origin of Flagellar Hairs

    V. Pseudocilia

    VI. The Haptonema

    4. Chloroplasts (Plastids)

    I. Chloroplast Structure

    A. Structure of the Thylakoid

    B. Arrangement of the Thylakoids

    C. The Chloroplast Stroma or Matrix

    D. The Chloroplast Envelope and Endoplasmic Reticulum Sheath

    II. Unusual Chloroplast Structure in Mutants, etc

    III. Chloroplast Development

    IV. Chloroplast Division

    V. Chloroplasts as Symbionts

    5. The Pyrenoid

    I. Types of Pyrenoid

    A. Simple Internal Pyrenoid

    B. Compound Internal Pyrenoid

    C. Stalked Pyrenoids

    D. Pyrenoid with Nuclear or Cytoplasmic Invaginations

    E. Pyrenoid Entirely Embedded in a Starch-containing Chloroplast

    II. The Pyrenoid Matrix

    III. The Development of Pyrenoids

    IV. Pyrenoids and Taxonomy

    6. TheEyespot

    I. The Types of Eyespot

    II. The Development and Replication of Eyespots

    III. Eyespot Structure and Taxonomy

    IV. The Function of the Eyespot

    7. The Nucleus and Nuclear Division

    I. The Interphase Nucleus

    A. Nuclear Envelope

    B. Nucleolus

    C. Chromatin

    II. Nuclear Division—Mitosis

    A. Chlorophyceae

    B. Phaeophyceae

    C. Chloromonadophyceae

    D. Haptophyceae

    E. Chrysophyceae

    F. Bacillariophyceae

    G. Xanthophyceae

    H. Rhodophyceae

    I. Euglenophyceae

    J. Dinophyceae

    K. Cryptophyceae

    III. Nuclear Division—Meiosis

    8. Cell Division (Cytokinesis)

    I. Unicellular Algae

    A. Flagellates

    B. Desmids (Chlorophyceae)

    C. Coccoid Algae (Chlorophyceae)

    II. Multicellular Algae

    A. Filaments

    B. Parenchymatous Algae

    9. Ejectile Organelles

    I. Trichocysts in the Dinophyceae

    II. Nematocysts (Cnidocysts) of Dinoflagellates

    III. Ejectosomes of Cryptomonads

    IV. Discobolocysts in the Chrysophyceae

    V. Other Ejectile Organelles

    10. Miscellaneous Organelles and Inclusions

    I. Mitochondria

    II. Golgi or Dictyosomes

    III. The Contractile Vacuole

    IV. The Pusule

    V. Microbodies (Peroxisomes)

    VI. Food Storage Materials

    A. Polysaccharide

    B. Lipids

    C. Protein

    VII. Polyphosphate Inclusions and Phosphatases

    VIII. Virus-like Inclusions

    IX. Membranous Extrusions and Inclusions, Digestion Vesicles

    11. Reproductive Structures

    I. Gamete Formation and Structure

    A. Phaeophyceae

    B. Bacillariophyceae

    C. Xanthophyceae

    D. Chlorophyceae

    II. Gamete Fusion and Zygote Development

    III. Spore Formation and Structure

    IV. Encystment

    12. Symbiosis

    13. Experimental Ultrastructure Studies

    I. Effects of Chemicals

    II. Effects of Environmental Conditions

    A. Nutrition

    B. Light

    C. Osmotic Potential

    III. Senescence

    14. Postscript: Fine Structure and Phylogeny

    Review Articles and Books


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 274
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1973
  • Published: January 1, 1973
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323158237

About the Author

John D. Dodge

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