The Eye Pt IB - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780122069215, 9780323162128

The Eye Pt IB

3rd Edition

Editors: Hugh Davson
eBook ISBN: 9780323162128
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 21st August 1984
Page Count: 522
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Description

The Eye, 3rd Edition, Volume lb: Vegetative Physiology and Biochemistry deals with the vegetative physiology and biochemistry of the eye. The book reviews major advances in the anatomy of the eye and its physiological and biochemical aspects, particularly the cornea and sclera, the ordered state of the lens, and lens development, growth and regeneration. This edition is organized into three chapters and begins with an overview of the mechanical and optical properties of the cornea and sclera and their relationship to the underlying structure of the tissue. This book shows that, in the cornea, the maintenance of the tissue structure requires the constant action of a fluid transport system dependent upon metabolic energy. The pathways of corneal nutrition, the sensitive corneal innervation, and the growth processes in the cornea and sclera are also discussed, emphasizing the mammalian cornea. The next chapter examines the use of physical and chemical techniques to determine how the ordered state of the lens is maintained and why that state is susceptible to chaotropic attack. Finally, an account of the metabolism of the lens and how cataract forms is given. This book is a valuable resource for students and researchers in fields ranging from ocular science to physiology and biochemistry.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Foreword to the First Edition

Chapter 1 The Cornea and Sclera

I. Introduction

II. Anatomy

A. Dimensions

B. Structure

III. Stroma

A. Tissue Mechanics

B. Optical Properties

C. Diffusion and Flow

IV. Limiting Layers

A. Mechanical and Optical Properties

B. Permeability

C. Fluid Pump and Thickness Control

V. Metabolism and Nutrition

A. Metabolic Activity

B. Intermediary Metabolism and Function

VI. Neurology

A. Innervation

B. Function

C. Growth, Injury and Trophism

VII. The Growth Processes

A. Development of Globe

B. Epithelium

C. Endothelium

D. Stroma

E. Growth Factors

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 2 The Lens as a Physiochemical System

I. Introduction

II. Structural Order in the Lens

A. Optical Techniques

B. Electron Microscopy

C. Physical Techniques Applied to the Intact Lens

III. The Optical Properties of the Lens

A. Lens Transparency

B. Light Scattering in Osmotic Cataracts

C. Light Scattering in Other Cataracts

D. Increase in Lens Absorbance and Fluorescence in Nuclear Cataracts

IV. Role of Membranes in the Lens

A. Introduction

B. Permeability Properties of Lens Membranes

C. Single Channels in the Lens

D. Mechanisms of the Control of Lens Membrane Permeability

E. Effects of Osmotic Stress on Lens Membrane Permeability

F. Effects of Hexose Sugars on Lens Membrane Permeability

G. Amino Acid Transport

V. Relationships Between Electrolyte and Protein Distribution in the Lens

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 3 The Lens: Development, Proteins, Metabolism and Cataract

I. Introduction

II. Lens Development, Growth and Regeneration

A. Formation of the Lens and Lens Sutures

B. Formation of the Lens Capsule

C. Lens Cell Proliferation

D. Elongation and Fiber Cell Differentiation

E. DNA Synthesis in Development

F. The Growth of the Lens: Lens Weight

G. Crystallin Ontogeny

H. Lens Regeneration

III. Non-Protein Constituents of the Lens

A. Amino Acids

B. Lipids

C. Ascorbic Acid

D. DNA

E. RNA

F. Nucleotides

G. Metabolic Intermediates

H. Inorganic Ions

I. Fluorescent Compounds

J. Glutathione and Related Peptides

IV Structural Proteins of the Lens

A. Lens Capsule

B. The Water-Soluble Structural Proteins of the Lens

C. Actin, Microtubules and Intermediate Filaments

D. Insoluble Proteins

E. High Molecular Weight Fractions from Clear Lenses

F. Changes in Lens Proteins in Aging and Cataract

V. Lens Metabolism

A. Overall Metabolism

B. Enzyme Classification and Kinetics

C. Glycolysis

D. The Pentose Phosphate Pathway

E. The Citric Acid Cycle

F. The α-Glycerophosphate Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation

G. The Sorbitol Pathway

H. Lipid Metabolism

I. Amino Acid Metabolism

J. Metabolism of Glutathione

K. Protein Synthesis

L. Proteolysis and Proteolytic Enzymes

M. Miscellaneous Enzymes

VI. Cataract

A. Radiation Cataracts

B. Sugar Cataracts

C. Toxic Cataracts

D. Congenital Cataract

E. Calcium and Cataract

F. Cataract Secondary to Uveitis

G. Traumatic Cataract

H. Cold Cataract

I. Osmotic Cataracts

J. Deficiency Cataracts

K. Multifactorial Cataract

L. Conclusions on Experimental Cataract

M. Human Cataract of Unknown Aetiology

N. Cataract Therapy and Prevention

Acknowledgments

References

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
522
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323162128

About the Editor

Hugh Davson