The Expanding Earth - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444414854, 9781483289557

The Expanding Earth, Volume 10

1st Edition

Authors: S.W. Carey
eBook ISBN: 9781483289557
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st January 1976
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Table of Contents

The Expanding Earth

Part I Introductory Review

Face of the Earth



The Orocline Concept

Decades in Contempt

The Primary Rift System

A Shotgun Wedding

Kuhnian Revolution

A New Round of Red-Herrings

Development of Expanding Earth Concept

Necessity for Expansion

Gaping Gores

Hierarchy of Extension

Dispersion of Polygons

The Pacific Paradox

The Arctic Paradox

The Young Oceans

The Subduction Myth

Two False Axioms

Trenches are not Where they Should be

Which Side Moves?

Trench Sediments are not Deformed as they Should be

Trench Sediments do not Go Into Orogens

No Moho Bend Oceanward from Trench

Continents are Welded to their Own Mantle

Universal Tension

All Motion is Up Behind the Trench

Kinematic Contrast

Orogenic and Metamorphic Energies do not Fit

Blue Schists and Paired Metamorphic Belts

Seismic Misinterpretation

Seismic Attenuation

Higher Velocity Under Benioff Zone



Coupled Oroclines









Philosophy of Orocline Concept

Part II Some Principles

Scale of Tectonic Phenomena

Length-Time Fields of Deformation

Geological Examples of Scale Fields

Experimental Tectonics

Other Planets


Kinds of Change

Non-Uniform Parameters

Non-Uniform Expression

Non-Uniformitarianism - Retrospect

Tectonic Profile

Local Hydrostatic Stress

Crustal Extension

Pure Shear

Simple Shear with Vertical Axis

Fluid Pressures

Failure at the Free Surface

Simple Shear with Horizontal Axis



Departure From Isostatic Equilibrium

Global Hydrostatic State

General Summary of the Tectonic Profile



Abortive Attempts to Measure Palaeoradius

Global Palaeomagnetism Require Expansion

Palaeomagnetism Confirms Orocline Tectonics

Asymmetry of the Earth

Asymmetry of Figure

Geophysical Asymmetry

Dynamic Asymmetry

Summary of Asymmetries

Asymmetry is Normal

Control and Constraints of Asymmetry

Rotation of the Earth


Precessions, Nutations, Librations and Wobbles, at Fixed Obliquity

Variation of Obliquity

Variation of Rate of Rotation

Variation of Period of Revolution

Modes of Crustal Extension

Cambium Ridges

Whaleback Tumours

Deckenschrund Ridges

Dyke Swarms

Categories of Submarine Ridges

Part III Regional

Western North America

Tectonic Setting

The San Andreas System

Mendocino and Idaho Oroclines


Cascadan Province

The Rocky Mountain Trench

Pre-Tertiary Patterns

Dextral Shift of Coastal Fringe

Canadian Border Transverse Zone

Central America

Tectonic Control

Constraints on Reconstruction

Regional Tectonics

South-East Asia

The Ninetyeast Ridge

Asia-Australia Reconstruction

Tectonic Zones of South-East Asia

India and Malay Peninsula

Australia and India

The WA-TIM-EC Rift

Wallace's Line

India-Gondwana Paradox

The Rift Oceans

Part IV Retrospect


Cause of Expansion


What Causes the Earth to Expand

Phase Change at Constant Mass

Secular Decrease in G

Secular Increase in Mass

Secular Change of E/M

Universal Null

Part V





Developments in Geotectonics, 10: The Expanding Earth focuses on the principles, methodologies, transformations, and approaches involved in the expanding earth concept.

The book first elaborates on the development of the expanding earth concept, necessity for expansion, and the subduction myth. Discussions focus on higher velocity under Benioff zone, seismic attenuation, blue schists and paired metamorphic belts, dispersion of polygons, arctic paradox, and kinematic contrast. The manuscript then ponders on the scale of tectonic phenomena, non-uniformitarianism, tectonic profiles, and paleomagnetism. Concerns cover global paleomagnetism, general summary of the tectonic profile, implosions, fluid pressures, pure shear, crustal extension, simple shear with horizontal axis, geological examples of scale fields, and length-time fields of deformation.

The publication explores the cause of expansion, modes of crustal extension, and rotation and asymmetry of the earth, including dynamic asymmetry, precessions, nutations, librations, and wobbles at fixed obliquity, variation of rate of rotation, and categories of submarine ridges.

The text is a dependable source of data for researchers wanting to study the concept of expanding earth.


© Elsevier Science 1976
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:


"A rare and marvelous combination of geologic science and philosophy dealing with a review of the past, citing the present and extrapolating into the future. Illustrative matter is exemplary; the documentation is massive. Will enhance all serious science collections." --New Technical Books

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About the Authors

S.W. Carey Author