The Evolution of the Bioenergetic Processes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080226514, 9781483136134

The Evolution of the Bioenergetic Processes

1st Edition

Authors: E. Broda
eBook ISBN: 9781483136134
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1975
Page Count: 242
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The Evolution of the Bioenergetic Processes deals with the evolution of the bioenergetic processes, from fermentation to photosynthesis and respiration, and their interrelationships in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Topics covered range from the origin of life to the evolution of eobionts, organisms, and energy-rich compounds. Fermentation, photoorganotrophy, and photosynthesis in bacteria and plants are also discussed.

Comprised of 25 chapters, this book begins with an overview of energy and entropy in the biosphere, followed by a detailed treatment of the evolution of bioenergetics based on the pattern of the bioenergetic processes in extant organisms. The reader is then introduced to the events involved in the origin of life; the evolution of eobionts and organisms; and the origin of energy-rich compounds, particularly nucleotides of the adenylic acid system. Subsequent chapters focus on fermentation and photosynthesis; assimilation of carbon dioxide; photoorganotrophy, chemolithotrophy, and photolithotrophy; and aerobic and anaerobic respiration of prokaryotes. The book also considers the energy supply of protozoa and fungi before concluding with an analysis of the history of atmospheric oxygen.

This monograph will be of interest to evolutionary biologists.

Table of Contents


Foreword to the Revised Reprint

1. Energy in the Biosphere

(a) Life and Work

(b) Energy and Entropy in the Biosphere

(c) Heat as a Source of Work?

(d) Organisms as Chemodynamical Machines

(e) Dynamic States of Organisms

(f) Active Transport

2. Bioenergetics and Evolution

(a) Classes of Bioenergetic Processes

(b) Genotype and Phenotype

(c) Gene Transfer and Evolution

(d) Processes and Substances

(e) Bioenergetics and Classification

3. Early Conditions on the Earth

(a) Formation of the Planets

(b) Age Determinations

(c) The Secondary Terrestrial Atmosphere

(d) Conditions on Earth-like Planets

4. Origin of Life

(a) The Concepts of Oparin and Haldane

(b) Organic Matter in Space and in Meteorites

(c) Abiosynthesis on the Early Earth

(d) The Primeval Soup

(e) Formation of Macromolecules

5. Eobionts and Organisms

(a) From Eobionts to Cells

(b) Coacervates and Microspheres

(c) The Origin of the Genetic Code

(d) Considerations about Self-Organization

(e) Acquisition of Enzymes

(f) Loss of Functions

(g) The Origin of Optical Activity

6. Energy-Rich Compounds

(a) The Adenylic Acid System

(b) Energetic Coupling

(c) The Origin of Energy-Rich Compounds

7. Fermentation

(a) The Simplest Extant Organisms

(b) Clostridia

(c) Glycolysis

(d) Hydrogen Fermentations

(e) Methane Formers

(f) The Pentose Phosphate Pathway

(g) Storage Materials

8. Bacterial Photosynthesis in General

(a) A Critical Stage for Life

(b) The Overall Role of Phototrophy

(c) The Role of Chlorophyll

(d) The Photosynthetic Unit

(e) Cyclic Photophosphorylation. Electron Flow

(f) Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation

(g) Origin of Photosynthesis

(h) Early Mechanisms

9. Photoorganotrohpy

(a) Non-Sulphur Purple Bacteria

(b) Reducing Power and ATP

10. Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide

(a) Availability of CO2

(b) Absorption of CO2 by Fermenters

(c) Anaerobic CO2 Assimilation in the Dark

(d) Reductive Carboxylic Acid Cycle

(e) Reductive Pentose Phosphate Cycle

11. Photolithotrophy

(a) Reducing Power from Inorganic Substances

(b) Purple and Green Sulphur Bacteria

12. Plant Photosynthesis

(a) Water as a Source of Electrons

(b) The Z Scheme

(c) The Origin of the Serial Process

(d) Non-Cyclic and Cyclic Photophosphorylation

(e) Absolute Quantum Yields

(f) Blue-Green and Other Algae

(g) Return to Older Processes

13. Respiration in General

(a) Use of Oxygen

(b) The Concept of Respiration

(c) The Citric Acid Cycle

(d) The Respiratory Chain

14. Aerobic Respiration of Prokaryotes

(a) Respiration of Blue-Green Algae

(b) Protection Against Oxygen

(c) Oxygen in Bacterial Energy Metabolism

(d) The Origin of Bacterial Respiration

(e) The Conversion Hypothesis

(f) The Origin of the Aerobes

(g) The Gliding "Bacteria"

15. Chemolithotrophy

(a) General Features

(b) Colourless Sulphur Bacteria

(c) Nitrificants

(d) Hydrogen Oxidizing Bacteria and Algae

(e) Oxidizers of C1 Compounds

(f) The Origin of the Chemolithotrophs

16. Bactrial Anaerobic Respiration

(a) Nitrate and Sulphate Respirers

(b) Sulphureta

(c) The Origin of the Nitrate Respirers

(d) The Origin of the Sulphate Respirers

(e) Carbonate Respirers?

17. A Scheme for Prokaryotic Evolution

(a) General Features

(b) Special Features

18. Eukaryotes and their Organelles

(a) Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

(b) Intracellular Organelles

(c) Mitochondria

(d) Aerobic and Anaerobic Yeast

(e) Nuclei

(f) Peroxisomes

(g) Chloroplasts

19. Origin of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts

(a) Mitochondria as Semi-Autonomous Genetic Systems

(b) Mitochondria as Endosymbionts

(c) Chloroplasts as Semi-Autonomous Genetic Systems

(d) Chloroplasts as Endosymbionts

(e) Events Leading to Symbiosis

(f) The Role of the Peroxisome

(g) Chloroplasts in Evolution

(h) Some Objections Against the Endosymbiotic Hypothesis

20. Energy Supply of Protozoa and Fungi

(a) Protozoa

(b) Fungi

21. Relationship of the Bioenergetic Processes in Plants, Animals and Fungi

(a) Plants and Animals

(b) Position of the Fungi

22. Bioenergetics of Tissues

(a) Differentiation and Energetics

(b) Transition to Life on Land

(c) Energetics of Plant Tissue

(d) Photorespiration

(e) Energetics of Animal Tissues

(f) Effects of Anaerobiosis

23. Palaeontological Evidence

(a) Microfossils and Stromatolites

(b) Macrofossils

24. Geological Evidence

(a) Inorganic Palaeochemistry

(b) Organic Palaeochemistry

25. History of Atmospheric Oxygen

(a) Oxygen in the Secondary Atmosphere

(b) The Rise of Photosynthesis and of Respiration

(c) The Stationary Concentration of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

(d) Carbon and Oxygen Inventory in the Biosphere

(e) Influence of Man



Additional References

Subject Index

Latin Names of Organisms


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About the Author

E. Broda

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