The Environmental Science of Drinking Water

The Environmental Science of Drinking Water

1st Edition - July 6, 2005

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  • Authors: Patrick Sullivan, Franklin Agardy, James Clark
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080457727

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In today’s chemically dependent society, environmental studies demonstrate that drinking water in developed countries contains numerous industrial chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and chemicals from water treatment processes. This poses a real threat. As a result of the ever-expanding list of chemical and biochemical products industry, current drinking water standards that serve to preserve our drinking water quality are grossly out of date. Environmental Science of Drinking Water demonstrates why we need to make a fundamental change in our approach toward protecting our drinking water. Factual and circumstantial evidence showing the failure of current drinking water standards to adequately protect human health is presented along with analysis of the extent of pollution in our water resources and drinking water. The authors also present detail of the currently available state-of-the-art technologies which, if fully employed, can move us toward a healthier future.

Key Features

* Addresses the international problems of outdated standards and the overwhelming onslaught of new contaminants.
* Includes new monitoring data on non-regulated chemicals in water sources and drinking water.
* Includes a summary of different bottled waters as well as consumer water purification technologies.


Environmental engineers, geologists, hydrologists, professionals and practitioners in public health, urban planning, science policy, ecology, soil science, agronomy, public health, natural resource management, urban planning, environmental consultants, public interest groups and county, city, state and federal state regulatory agencies.

Table of Contents

  • Foreward
    1. The Water We Drink
    Natural Water
    Water and the Public Health
    2. Water Pollution
    Human Waste and Pollution
    Industrial Pollution
    Wastewater Control and Treatment
    Nonpoint Sources of Water Pollution
    Pollution Sources and Water Quality
    3. Water Protection
    The Basics of Water Supply
    Basic Water Treatment
    Beyond Basic Water Treatment
    An Issue of Equality
    Chemical Monitoring and Warnings for Regulated Pollutants
    The National Drinking Water Contaminant Occurrence Database
    Unregulated Pollutants and Monitoring Regulations
    Setting New Drinking Water Standards
    Why Consumers Should be Concerned
    Approaches to Mitigate Chemical Exposure
    Water Pollution and Risk
    4. Living with the Risk of Polluted Water
    The Burden of Proof
    Permissible Pollution
    The Dose Makes the Poison
    Basic Concepts of Dose
    Mechanism of Toxicity
    Biotransformation and Detoxification
    Toxicity and Defining Standards
    Timing is Everything
    Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals
    Pharmaceutical Pollutants
    Pharmaceuticals Detected in the Environment
    Living with Risk
    Population, Pollution, Risk, and Precaution
    The Risk Assessment Process
    5. Managing Risk and Drinking Water Quality
    Learning from the Past and Present
    Risk and Economics
    An Alternative Approach
    Consumer-Based Protection
    Potential Action by the Water Industry
    Potential Governmental Actions
    An Alternative Risk Management Program
    Appendix 1-1 Average Elemental Abundance in the Earth’s Crust
    Appendix 1-2 Chemical Compounds with Established Water Quality Criteria
    Appendix 1-3 USEPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater and Human Consumption of Water + Organism: 2002
    Appendix 2-1 Dow Industrial Chemicals, Solvents and Dyes in 1938
    Appendix 2-2 USEPA List of Priority Pollutants
    Appendix 2-3 Summary of Surface Water Data
    Appendix 2-4 Summary of Shallow Groundwater Data
    Appendix 2-5 Organic Chemicals Found in Landfill Leachate and Gas
    Appendix 2-6 Unregulated Pollutants Discharged to or Identified in Water Resources
    Appendix 2-7 Chemicals Known to the State of California to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity
    Appendix 2-8 Regulated Pesticides in Food with Residue Tolerances
    Appendix 2-9 Comparison of Chemicals Required to be Monitored in Groundwater by RCRA
    Appendix 3-1 General Drinking Water Monitoring and Warning Requirements (as of 2002)
    Appendix 3-2 National Drinking Water Contaminant Occurrence Database Data on Primary Water Quality Standards (May 18, 2001)
    Appendix 3-3 National Drinking Water Contaminant Occurrence Database: Data on Unregulated Compounds
    Appendix 3-4 Examples of Bottled Mineral Water Chemistry
    Appendix 3-5 Examples of Bottled Water Chemistry
    Appendix 3-6 Trace Element Analysis of Mineral Waters (ppb) That Appear in Either
    Appendix 3-4 or Appendix 3-5
    Appendix 4-1 Glossary of Terms Adapted from the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (1993)
    Appendix 4-2 Chemical Examples on the Toxicology of Drinking Water Standards
    Appendix 4-3 Suspected Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals
    Appendix 4-4 U.S. Geological Survey Target Compounds, National Reconnaissance of Emerging Contaminants in U.S. Streams (2000)


Product details

  • No. of pages: 384
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2005
  • Published: July 6, 2005
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080457727

About the Authors

Patrick Sullivan

Principal Geochemist, Komex · H2O · Science, Inc.

Affiliations and Expertise

Partner, Forensic Management Associates, San Mateo, CA

Franklin Agardy

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Forensic Management Associates, San Mateo, CA

James Clark

Affiliations and Expertise

Soil/Water/Air/Protection Enterprise, Santa Monica, CA

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