The Effects of Noise on Man - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124274501, 9781483272627

The Effects of Noise on Man

1st Edition

Authors: Karl D. Kryter
Editors: Douglas H.K. Lee E. Wendell Hewson C. Fred Gurnham
eBook ISBN: 9781483272627
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1970
Page Count: 654
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Description

The Effects of Noise on Man covers the techniques for the evaluation of environmental noise in terms of its effects on human. The book provides the fundamental definitions of sound, its measurement, and concepts of the basic functioning, and the attributes of the auditory system. The text also presents along with their experimental basis, procedures for estimating from physical measures of noise its effects on man's auditory system and speech communications. The last part of the book is devoted to man's nonauditory system responses and includes information about the effects of noise on work performance, sleep, feelings of pain, vision, and blood circulation.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

Part I Auditory System Responses to Noise

Introduction

Chapter 1 Analysis of Sound by the Ear

Definitions of Sound

Pressure-Temporal Spectral Response Characteristics of the Ear to Sound

Methods for Measuring Sounds in Order to Predict Their Effects on Hearing

Chapter 2 Masking and Speech Communication in Noise

Introduction

Masking of Pure Tones and Bands of Random Noise

Effects of Noise on Speech Communications

Combating the Interference with Speech by Noise

Estimating Speech Intelligibility Using Physical Measurement of Speech and Noise

Criteria of Acceptable Noise Levels for Speech Communications

Relations between AI and SIL

Recent Studies of Masking of Real-Life Noises

An Evaluation of AI and Other Units with Representative Noises

Devices for Evaluating Speech Systems

Chapter 3 The Aural Reflex

Introduction

Masking, Loudness, and Auditory Fatigue

Chapter 4 Audiometry

Introduction

Audiometric Zero

ASA 1951 Standard

Presbycusis and Sociocusis

Relation between Pure-Tone Thresholds and Speech Perception

Impairment of Speech Reception and Relation to Pure-Tone Hearing Levels

Proposed New Method for Estimating Percent Hearing Impairment for Speech

Chapter 5 Damage Risk from Exposure to Noise

Introduction

Temporary and Permanent Threshold Shift for Purposes of Evaluating Noise

Some Relations between TTS Data and Specific Industrial Studies of NIPTS

Workmen's Compensation for NIPTS

Safety and Health Standards

Broadband versus Narrowband Noise and Pure Tones

Susceptibility to NIPTS and TTS

Damage Risk Contours

Impulsive Noise

TTS and NIPTS for Impulses

Music

Pulsed Tones

Chapter 6 Proposed Procedures for Estimating Damage Risk to Hearing

Introduction

TTS and NIPTS as a Function of Change in SPL

TTS and NIPTS as a Function of Exposure Duration

Recovery from TTS

Proposed DR Contours

EDRL and CDR from dB(A), dB(D), PNdB, Phons

Simplified Procedures for Estimating EDRL and CDR of Nonimpulsive Noise

Relation between EDRL, CDR, HL and Impairment for Speech

Theoretical Model

Validity of Proposed DRCs, EDRL, and CDR

Comparison of Schemes for Predicting NIPTS from TTS Data

Part II Subjective Responses to Noise

Introduction

Chapter 7 Loudness

The Dependence of Loudness of Frequency

Dependence of Loudness on Intensity (Growth of Loudness)

Changes in Loudness with Time

Loudness Predicted by Sound-Level Meters

Impulse Noise

Interrupted Noise

Chapter 8 Perceived Noisiness (Annoyance)

Introduction

Perceived Noisiness

Historical Resume

Judged Perceived Noisiness and Perceived Noise Level

Methods of Predicting Perceived Noise Level from Physical Measures and Calculations

Effect of Differences in Sources, Subjects, and Test Conditions

Reliability of Subjective Judgments

Relative Accuracy of Physical Units for Predicting Judged Perceived Noisiness

Chapter 9 Environmental Noise and its Evaluation

Introduction

Office and Room Noise

Noise Surveys in the Community

Motor Vehicle Noise

Noise from Subsonic Aircraft

Community Reactions to Noise from Subsonic Aircraft

Booms from Supersonic Aircraft

Edwards Air Force Base Study

Regulatory Codes for Community Noise

Composite Noise Rating (CRN)-a Method for Rating, Evaluating, and Predicting Effects of Environment Noise

Tolerable Limits of Noise Exposure

Chapter 10 Summary of Methods of Predicting Certain Responses to Noise

Introduction

Summary of Methods of Calculating Units of Noise Related to Quantities of Human Response

Comparison of Secondary and Primary Physical Units

Constants for Converting Units of PNL to a Common Base

Recommended Units of Sound Measurement

Chapter 11 Proposed Procedures for the Evaluation of Environmental Noises

Introduction

Definitions of Terms

Calculation Procedures for Perceived Noise Level (PNL) and Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL)

Calculation Procedures for Composite Noise Rating (CNR)

Part III Nonauditory System Responses to Noise

Introduction

Biological Considerations

Health

Adaptation

Performance

Habitual Noise

Chapter 12 General Physiological Responses to Noise

Somatic Responses

Stress and Health

Sleep

Audioanalgesia

Effects on Other Senses

Chapter 13 Effects of Noise on Mental and Motor Performance

Introduction

Problems in the Interpretation of Research Findings

Theories of Effects of Noise on Work Performance

Productivity in Industry

Physiological and Psychological Factors Theory

Part IV A Summary

References


Details

No. of pages:
654
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1970
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483272627

About the Author

Karl D. Kryter

About the Editor

Douglas H.K. Lee

E. Wendell Hewson

C. Fred Gurnham