The Effects of Noise on Man

The Effects of Noise on Man

1st Edition - January 1, 1970

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  • Author: Karl D. Kryter
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272627

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Description

The Effects of Noise on Man covers the techniques for the evaluation of environmental noise in terms of its effects on human. The book provides the fundamental definitions of sound, its measurement, and concepts of the basic functioning, and the attributes of the auditory system. The text also presents along with their experimental basis, procedures for estimating from physical measures of noise its effects on man's auditory system and speech communications. The last part of the book is devoted to man's nonauditory system responses and includes information about the effects of noise on work performance, sleep, feelings of pain, vision, and blood circulation.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Part I Auditory System Responses to Noise

    Introduction

    Chapter 1 Analysis of Sound by the Ear

    Definitions of Sound

    Pressure-Temporal Spectral Response Characteristics of the Ear to Sound

    Methods for Measuring Sounds in Order to Predict Their Effects on Hearing

    Chapter 2 Masking and Speech Communication in Noise

    Introduction

    Masking of Pure Tones and Bands of Random Noise

    Effects of Noise on Speech Communications

    Combating the Interference with Speech by Noise

    Estimating Speech Intelligibility Using Physical Measurement of Speech and Noise

    Criteria of Acceptable Noise Levels for Speech Communications

    Relations between AI and SIL

    Recent Studies of Masking of Real-Life Noises

    An Evaluation of AI and Other Units with Representative Noises

    Devices for Evaluating Speech Systems

    Chapter 3 The Aural Reflex

    Introduction

    Masking, Loudness, and Auditory Fatigue

    Chapter 4 Audiometry

    Introduction

    Audiometric Zero

    ASA 1951 Standard

    Presbycusis and Sociocusis

    Relation between Pure-Tone Thresholds and Speech Perception

    Impairment of Speech Reception and Relation to Pure-Tone Hearing Levels

    Proposed New Method for Estimating Percent Hearing Impairment for Speech

    Chapter 5 Damage Risk from Exposure to Noise

    Introduction

    Temporary and Permanent Threshold Shift for Purposes of Evaluating Noise

    Some Relations between TTS Data and Specific Industrial Studies of NIPTS

    Workmen's Compensation for NIPTS

    Safety and Health Standards

    Broadband versus Narrowband Noise and Pure Tones

    Susceptibility to NIPTS and TTS

    Damage Risk Contours

    Impulsive Noise

    TTS and NIPTS for Impulses

    Music

    Pulsed Tones

    Chapter 6 Proposed Procedures for Estimating Damage Risk to Hearing

    Introduction

    TTS and NIPTS as a Function of Change in SPL

    TTS and NIPTS as a Function of Exposure Duration

    Recovery from TTS

    Proposed DR Contours

    EDRL and CDR from dB(A), dB(D), PNdB, Phons

    Simplified Procedures for Estimating EDRL and CDR of Nonimpulsive Noise

    Relation between EDRL, CDR, HL and Impairment for Speech

    Theoretical Model

    Validity of Proposed DRCs, EDRL, and CDR

    Comparison of Schemes for Predicting NIPTS from TTS Data

    Part II Subjective Responses to Noise

    Introduction

    Chapter 7 Loudness

    The Dependence of Loudness of Frequency

    Dependence of Loudness on Intensity (Growth of Loudness)

    Changes in Loudness with Time

    Loudness Predicted by Sound-Level Meters

    Impulse Noise

    Interrupted Noise

    Chapter 8 Perceived Noisiness (Annoyance)

    Introduction

    Perceived Noisiness

    Historical Resume

    Judged Perceived Noisiness and Perceived Noise Level

    Methods of Predicting Perceived Noise Level from Physical Measures and Calculations

    Effect of Differences in Sources, Subjects, and Test Conditions

    Reliability of Subjective Judgments

    Relative Accuracy of Physical Units for Predicting Judged Perceived Noisiness

    Chapter 9 Environmental Noise and its Evaluation

    Introduction

    Office and Room Noise

    Noise Surveys in the Community

    Motor Vehicle Noise

    Noise from Subsonic Aircraft

    Community Reactions to Noise from Subsonic Aircraft

    Booms from Supersonic Aircraft

    Edwards Air Force Base Study

    Regulatory Codes for Community Noise

    Composite Noise Rating (CRN)-a Method for Rating, Evaluating, and Predicting Effects of Environment Noise

    Tolerable Limits of Noise Exposure

    Chapter 10 Summary of Methods of Predicting Certain Responses to Noise

    Introduction

    Summary of Methods of Calculating Units of Noise Related to Quantities of Human Response

    Comparison of Secondary and Primary Physical Units

    Constants for Converting Units of PNL to a Common Base

    Recommended Units of Sound Measurement

    Chapter 11 Proposed Procedures for the Evaluation of Environmental Noises

    Introduction

    Definitions of Terms

    Calculation Procedures for Perceived Noise Level (PNL) and Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL)

    Calculation Procedures for Composite Noise Rating (CNR)

    Part III Nonauditory System Responses to Noise

    Introduction

    Biological Considerations

    Health

    Adaptation

    Performance

    Habitual Noise

    Chapter 12 General Physiological Responses to Noise

    Somatic Responses

    Stress and Health

    Sleep

    Audioanalgesia

    Effects on Other Senses

    Chapter 13 Effects of Noise on Mental and Motor Performance

    Introduction

    Problems in the Interpretation of Research Findings

    Theories of Effects of Noise on Work Performance

    Productivity in Industry

    Physiological and Psychological Factors Theory

    Part IV A Summary

    References


Product details

  • No. of pages: 654
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1970
  • Published: January 1, 1970
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272627

About the Author

Karl D. Kryter

About the Editors

Douglas H.K. Lee

E. Wendell Hewson

C. Fred Gurnham

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