The Ecological Importance of Mixed-Severity Fires - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128027493, 9780128027608

The Ecological Importance of Mixed-Severity Fires

1st Edition

Nature's Phoenix

Authors: Dominick DellaSala Chad Hanson
eBook ISBN: 9780128027608
Paperback ISBN: 9780128027493
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 23rd June 2015
Page Count: 450
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The Ecological Importance of High-Severity Fires, presents information on the current paradigm shift in the way people think about wildfire and ecosystems.

While much of the current forest management in fire-adapted ecosystems, especially forests, is focused on fire prevention and suppression, little has been reported on the ecological role of fire, and nothing has been presented on the importance of high-severity fire with regards to the maintenance of native biodiversity and fire-dependent ecosystems and species.

This text fills that void, providing a comprehensive reference for documenting and synthesizing fire's ecological role.

Key Features

  • Offers the first reference written on mixed- and high-severity fires and their relevance for biodiversity
  • Contains a broad synthesis of the ecology of mixed- and high-severity fires covering such topics as vegetation, birds, mammals, insects, aquatics, and management actions

  • Explores the conservation vs. public controversy issues around megafires in a rapidly warming world


Ecologists, environmentalists, land managers

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • List of Contributors
  • Biographies
    • Editors
    • Chapter Authors
  • Preface
    • Abstract
    • 1 Mythology Meets Fire Ecology
    • 2 Flight of the Phoenix
    • 3 Command and Control of Nature’s Phoenix
    • 4 Just What Are Mixed- and High-Severity Fires and What Governs Them?
    • 5 The Misunderstood Phoenix
    • 6 What We Cover in This Book
    • 7 Never Judge a Postfire Landscape by the Initiating Disturbance Event
    • 8 Out With Smokey, in With the Phoenix
  • Acknowledgments
  • Section 1: Biodiversity of Mixed- and High-Severity Fires
    • Chapter 1: Setting the Stage for Mixed- and High-Severity Fire
      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Earlier Hypotheses and Current Research
      • 1.2 Ecosystem Resilience and Mixed- and High-Severity Fire
      • 1.3 Mixed- and High-Severity Fires Have Not Increased in Frequency as Assumed
      • 1.4 Conclusions
    • Chapter 2: Ecological and Biodiversity Benefits of Megafires
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Just What Are Megafires?
      • 2.2 Megafires as Global Change Agents
      • 2.3 Megafires, Large Severe Fire Patches, and Complex Early Seral Forests
      • 2.4 Historical Evidence of Megafires
      • 2.5 Megafires and Landscape Heterogeneity
      • 2.6 Are Megafires Increasing?
      • 2.7 Language Matters
      • 2.8 Conclusions
      • Appendix 2.1 Fires of Historical Significance from Records Compiled By the National Interagency Fire Center (
    • Chapter 3: Using Bird Ecology to Learn About the Benefits of Severe Fire
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Insights from Bird Studies
    • Chapter 4: Mammals and Mixed- and High-severity Fire
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Bats
      • 4.3 Small Mammals
      • 4.4 Carnivores
      • 4.5 Ungulates
      • 4.6 Management and Conservation Relevance
      • 4.7 Conclusions
      • Appendix 4.1 The number of studies by taxa showing directional response (negative, neutral, or positive) to severe wildfire over three time periods following fire. Studies cited include unburned areas compared to severely burned areas with no post-fire logging, and excluded prescribed burns. For small mammals, only species with enough detections to determine directional response were reported
    • Chapter 5: Stream-Riparian Ecosystems and Mixed- and High-Severity Fire
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Defining Wildfire Severity and Stream-Riparian Biotic Responses
      • 5.2 Stream-Riparian Areas and Wildfire Severity
      • 5.3 Time Since Fire Matters
      • 5.4 Spatial Scale Matters
      • 5.5 Responses to a Gradient of Wildfire Severity: Evidence from the North American West
      • 5.6 Chemical Responses
      • 5.7 Biodiversity, Conservation, and Management
      • 5.8 Conclusions
    • Chapter 6: Bark Beetles and High-Severity Fires in Rocky Mountain Subalpine Forests
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 6.1 Fire, Beetles, and Their Interactions
      • 6.2 How Do Outbreaks Affect Subsequent High-Severity Fires?
      • 6.3 How Do High-Severity Fires Affect Subsequent Outbreaks?
      • 6.4 How Are Interacting Fires and Bark Beetles Affecting Forest Resilience in the Context of Climate Change?
      • 6.5 Conclusions
  • Section 2: Global and Regional Perspectives on Mixed- and High-Severity Fires
    • Chapter 7: High-Severity Fire in Chaparral: Cognitive Dissonance in the Shrublands
      • Abstract
      • 7.1 Chaparral and the Fire Suppression Paradigm
      • 7.2 The Facts About Chaparral Fires: They Burn Intensely and Severely
      • 7.3 Fire Misconceptions are Pervasive
      • 7.4 Reducing Cognitive Dissonance
      • 7.5 Paradigm Change Revisited
      • 7.6 Conclusion: Making the Paradigm Shift
    • Chapter 8: Regional Case Studies: Southeast Australia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Central Europe, and Boreal Canada
      • Abstract
      • Case Study: The Ecology of Mixed-Severity Fire in Mountain Ash Forests
      • Acknowledgments
      • 8.1 The Setting
      • 8.2 Mountain Ash Life Cycle
      • 8.3 Influence of Stand Age on Fire Severity
      • 8.4 Distribution of Old-Growth Forests
      • 8.5 Mixed-Severity Fire and Fauna of Mountain Ash Forests
      • 8.6 Fauna and Fire-Affected Habitat Structures
      • 8.7 Faunal Response to the Spatial Outcomes of Fire
      • 8.8 Conservation Challenges and Future Fire
      • Case Study: The Importance of Mixed- and High-Severity Fires in sub-Saharan Africa
      • 8.9 The Big Picture
      • 8.10 Where Is Fire Important in sub-Saharan Africa?
      • 8.11 What About People and Fire?
      • 8.12 Coevolution of Savannah, Herbivores, and Fire
      • 8.13 Herbivores and Fire
      • 8.14 Beyond Africa’s Savannah Habitat
      • 8.15 Habitat Management Through Controlled Burns
      • 8.16 Southwestern Cape Renosterveld Management
      • 8.17 Conclusion
      • Case Study: Response of Invertebrates to Mixed- and High-Severity Fires in Central Europe
      • 8.18 The Setting
      • 8.19 Aeolian Sands Specialists Alongside the Railway Track Near Bzenec-Přívoz
      • 8.20 Postfire Succession Near Jetřichovice: A Chance for Dead Wood Specialists
      • 8.21 Conclusions
      • The Role of Large Fires in the Canadian Boreal Ecosystem
      • 8.22 The Green Halo
      • 8.23 Land of Extremes
      • 8.24 Vegetation
      • 8.25 Plants Coping with Fire
      • 8.26 Fire Regime of the Canadian Boreal Forest
      • 8.27 Temporal Patterns of Fire and Other Changes in the Boreal
      • 8.28 Biodiversity
      • 8.29 Conclusion
    • Chapter 9: Climate Change: Uncertainties, Shifting Baselines, and Fire Management
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Top-Down Climate Forcing Fire Behavior
      • 9.2 Using the Paleo-Record to Construct a Fire Envelope
      • 9.3 Reconstructing Past Fire Regimes
      • 9.4 Fire History Across a Moisture Gradient
      • 9.5 Case Studies of Long-Term Fire History in the Western United States
      • 9.6 Historical Record and the Fire Envelope
      • 9.7 Understanding the Influence of Anthropogenic Climate Change on Fire
      • 9.8 Observed Trends in Fire Activity Linked to Climate Change
      • 9.9 Projected Changes in Fire Activity in Response to Climate Change
      • 9.10 Conclusions
    • Chapter 10: Carbon Dynamics of Mixed- and High-Severity Wildfires: Pyrogenic CO2 Emissions, Postfire Carbon Balance, and Succession
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Mixed-Severity Fires: A Diversity of Fuels, Environments, and Fire Behaviors
      • 10.2 Duff, Litter, and Woody Debris Combustion
      • 10.3 Live Foliage Combustion
      • 10.4 Soil Combustion
      • 10.5 Bole Biomass Consumption
      • 10.6 Fuel Reduction Treatments, Carbon Emissions, and Long-Term Carbon Storage
      • 10.7 Indirect Sources of Carbon Emissions
      • 10.8 Conclusions
  • Section 3: Managing Mixed- and High-Severity Fires
    • Chapter 11: In the Aftermath of Fire: Logging and Related Actions Degrade Mixed- and High-Severity Burn Areas
      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Postfire Logging as a Knee-Jerk Response
      • 11.2 Cumulative Effects of Postfire Logging and Related Activities
      • 11.3 Postfire Logging Lessons from Case Studies
      • 11.4 Conclusions
      • Appendix 11.1 Effects of Postfire Management Across Regions Where Most Studies Have Been Conducted
    • Chapter 12: The Rising Costs of Wildfire Suppression and the Case for Ecological Fire Use
      • Abstract
      • 12.1 Burned and Busted: The Rising Cost of Fighting Fires
      • 12.2 Socioenvironmental Cost Factors
      • 12.3 The Human Dimensions of Wildfire Suppression Costs
      • 12.4 External Sociocultural Cost Factors
      • 12.5 Internal Institutional Cost Factors
      • 12.6 Operational Factors: Suppression Strategies and Tactics
      • 12.7 Banking on Change: Recommendations for Controlling Costs and Expanding Benefits of Managing Wildfires
      • 12.8 Endnote on Methodology
    • Chapter 13: Flight of the Phoenix: Coexisting with Mixed-Severity Fires
      • Abstract
      • 13.1 Ecological Perspectives on Mixed-Severity Fire
      • 13.2 Understanding the Public’s Reaction to Fire
      • 13.3 Safe Living in Firesheds
      • 13.4 To Thin or Not to Thin?
      • 13.5 Fire Safety and Ecological Use of Wildland Fire Recommendations
      • 13.6 Lessons from Around the Globe
      • 13.7 Addressing Uncertainties
      • 13.8 Closing Remarks
  • Index


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About the Author

Dominick DellaSala

Dominick DellaSala

Dominick A. DellaSala, Ph.D., is President and Chief Scientist of the Geos Institute ( in Ashland, Oregon. He served two terms as President of the Society for Conservation Biology, North America Section, and is a Courtesy Professor at Oregon State University. He is an internationally renowned author of over 200 technical papers on forest and fire ecology, conservation biology, endangered species, and landscape ecology. He received conservation leadership awards from the World Wildlife Fund (2000, 2004), Wilburforce Foundation (2006), received Choice Publisher’s “academic excellence” award for “Temperate and Boreal Rainforests of the World: Ecology and Conservation,” and is on the Fulbright Specialist roster for international placement by the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Education and Cultural Affairs and the Council for International Exchange of Scholars. Dr. DellaSala has appeared on nature documentaries (PBS), as an expert witness at numerous congressional hearings including acting as a “whistle blower” during congressional hearings on scientific integrity and the Endangered Species Act, and has given keynote addresses at numerous conferences and international meetings such the United Nations Earth Summit. He is motivated by his passion to leave a living planet for his daughter and all those that follow.

Photo credit: Ariela DellaSala

Affiliations and Expertise

President and Chief Scientist, Geos Institute, USA

Chad Hanson

Chad Hanson

Chad T. Hanson, Ph. D., is director and staff ecologist of the John Muir Project of Earth Island Institute. His Ph.D. is in ecology from the University of California, Davis, and his research focus is on fire ecology in conifer forest ecosystems. Studies published by Dr. Hanson cover topics such as: habitat selection of rare wildlife species associated with habitat created by high-severity fire; post-fire conifer responses and adaptations; fire history, especially historical versus current rates of high-severity fire occurrence; and current fire patterns. Dr. Hanson lives in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California, and conducts research in conifer forests of the western United States, primarily in forests of California.

Affiliations and Expertise

Forest and Fire Ecologist, Earth Island Institute, USA


"...should be mandatory reading for all conservation groups as well as agency people who are dealing with fire. It will, I guarantee, change your perspective on wildlife and how we can best learn to live with fire, as opposed to trying to control it." --The Wildlife News

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