The Earth's Ionosphere

The Earth's Ionosphere

Plasma Physics and Electrodynamics

1st Edition - October 28, 1989

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  • Author: Michael Kelly
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148054

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The Earth's Ionosphere: Plasma Physics and Electrodynamics emphasizes the study of plasma physics and electrodynamics of the ionosphere, including many aeronomical influences. The ionosphere is somewhat of a battleground between the earth's neutral atmosphere and the sun's fully ionized atmosphere, in which the earth is embedded. One of the challenges of ionosphere research is to know enough about these two vast fields of research to make sense out of ionospheric phenomena. This book provides insights into how these competing sources of mass, momentum, and energy compete for control of the ionosphere. Some of the topics discussed include the fundamentals of ionospheric plasma dynamics; equatorial plasma instabilities; high-latitude electrodynamics; and instabilities and structure in the high-latitude ionosphere. Throughout this text only the region above 90 km are discussed, ignoring the D region entirely. This publication is a good source of information for students and individuals conducting research on earth’s ionosphere.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter 1 Introductory and Background Material

    1.1 Scope and Goals of the Text

    1.2 Structure of the Neutral Atmosphere and the Ionosphere

    1.3 The Earth's Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere


    Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Ionospheric Plasma Dynamics

    2.1 The Basic Fluid Equations

    2.2 Steady-State Ionospheric Plasma Motions Due to Applied Forces

    2.3 Generation of Electric Fields

    2.4 Electric Field Mapping

    2.5 Elements of Magnetospheric Physics

    2.6 Coordinate Systems


    Chapter 3 Electrodynamics of the Equatorial Zone

    3.1 Motions of the Equatorial F Region: The Data Base

    3.2 The Equatorial F-Region Dynamo

    3.3 E-Region Dynamo Theory and the Daytime Equatorial Electrojet

    3.4 Further Complexities of Equatorial Electrodynamics

    3.5 Feedback between the Electrodynamics and the Thermospheric Winds


    Chapter 4 Equatorial Plasma Instabilities

    4.1 F-Region Plasma Instabilities: Observations

    4.2 Development and Initiation of Equatorial Spread F

    4.3 Nonlinear Theories of ESF

    4.4 Short Wavelength Waves in Equatorial Spread F

    4.5 ESF Summary

    4.6 E-Region Plasma Instabilities: The Observational Data Base

    4.7 Linear Theories of Electrojet Instabilities

    4.8 Nonlinear Theories of Electrojet Instabilities

    4.9 Future Directions


    Chapter 5 The Mid-Latitude Ionosphere

    5.1 Competing Influences on the Tropical and Mid-Latitude Ionospheres

    5.2 Electrodynamics of the Tropical and Mid-Latitude Zone

    5.3 Irregularities in the Mid-Latitude Ionosphere

    5.4 Mid-Latitude Plasma Instabilities


    Chapter 6 High-Latitude Electrodynamics

    6.1 Electrical Coupling between the Ionosphere, Magnetosphere, and Solar Wind

    6.2 Observations of Ionospheric Convection

    6.3 Simple Models of Convection in the Magnetosphere

    6.4 Empirical and Analytic Representations of High-Latitude Convection

    6.5 Observations of Field-Aligned Currents

    6.6 Horizontal Currents at High Latitudes


    Chapter 7 Effects of Plasma Flow at High Latitudes

    7.1 Ionospheric Effects of Parallel Plasma Dynamics

    7.2 Ionospheric Effects of Perpendicular Plasma Dynamics

    7.3 Electrodynamic Forcing of the Neutral Atmosphere

    7.4 Summary


    Chapter 8 Instabilities and Structure in the High-Latitude Ionosphere

    8.1 Planetary and Large-Scale Structures in the High-Latitude F Region

    8.2 Intermediate-Scale Structure in the High-Latitude F Region

    8.3 Small-Scale Waves in the High-Latitude F Region

    8.4 Plasma Waves and Irregularities in the High-Latitude E Region—Observations

    8.5 Auroral Electrojet Theories

    8.6 Summary


    Appendix A Ionospheric Measurement Techniques

    A.1 Radio Wave Techniques in Ionospheric Physics

    A.2 In Situ Measurements


    Appendix B Reference Material and Equations

    B.1 Atmospheric and Ionospheric Structure

    B.2 Miscellaneous Formulas

    B.3 Surface Magnetic Field Measurements and Magnetic Activity Indices



    International Geophysics Series

Product details

  • No. of pages: 500
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1989
  • Published: October 28, 1989
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148054

About the Author

Michael Kelly

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of the Center for Research and Evaluation of Advanced Technologies in Education, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ Director, Insall Scott Kelly Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine; Attending Orthopaedic Surgeon, Beth Israel Medical Center*North Division, New York, NY

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