The Discrimination Process and Development

The Discrimination Process and Development

International Series of Monographs in Experimental Psychology

1st Edition - January 1, 1968

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  • Author: Brian J. Fellows
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483153667

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Description

The Discrimination Process and Development, Volume 5 covers the fields of behavioral theory and experimental child psychology. This book aims to develop the theory of the discrimination process and relate this theory to certain features of the perceptual and cognitive development of the child. Organized into 21 chapters, this volume starts with a discussion of discrimination process whereby an organism responds to differences between stimuli. This text then discusses the classical discrimination experiment whereby it employs two discriminative stimuli, one of which is positive and the other negative. Other chapters consider the developmental aspects of the discrimination process. The final chapter deals with the hypothesis analysis of matching performances. This book is intended to be suitable for psychology students who are looking for an area of research less restricted than conventional learning theory, and more significant to pressing practical problems. Child psychologists and experimentalists will also find this book useful.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    The Discrimination Process

    The Process of Perception

    Judgment and Response

    Discrimination Learning

    Discrimination and Development

    Chapter 2. Classical Theories of Discrimination Learning

    Pre-Solution Behavior

    Non-Continuity Theory

    Continuity Theory

    Issue of Perceptual Selectivity

    Spence and Receptor Orienting Acts

    Conclusion

    Chapter 3. Orienting Activity in Discrimination in Animals

    WyckofTs Observing Response

    Goodwin-Lawrence Dimension Orienting Response

    Pre-And post-Reception Responses

    Vicarious Trial and Error

    Chapter 4. OrientingR and Attention in Children

    Kurtz's Observing Response

    Zeaman-House Attention Deficiency Theory

    Attention-Controlling Techniques

    Chapter 5. Attention, Strategies and Age

    Eye Movements During Discrimination Learning

    White's Account of Discrimination Learning

    Position Habits

    Hierarchy Theory of Sense Modalities

    Control of Position Habits and Age

    Age Shifts and the Regression Hypothesis

    Hypothesis Regression During Matching-To-Sample

    Chapter 6. Orienting and Planning

    The Orientation Reaction

    Zaporozhets and Orienting Behavior in Children

    How Orienting Behavior Facilitates Discrimination

    Nature of Voluntary Behavior

    Plans and Images in Behavior

    Chapter 7. S-R Spatial Contiguity and Orienting

    S-R Spatial Discontiguity Effect

    Double Responding on Discontiguous Tasks

    Polidora-Fletcher Three-Stage Model of Discrimination Learning

    Chapter 8. Switching-In Stimulus Analyzers and Coding Responses

    Sutherland-Mackintosh Two-Stage Theory of Discrimination Learning

    Issue of Perceptual Learning

    Lawrence's Coding Response Hypothesis

    Chapter 9. Discrimination Training and the Acquired Distinctiveness of Cues Hypothesis

    Training a difficult discrimination

    Transfer of a Discrimination Along a Continuum

    Stimulus Predifferentiation

    Acquired Distinctiveness of Cues Hypothesis

    Chapter 10. Programming a Discrimination

    Response Programming by Shaping

    Stimulus Programming by Fading

    Hively's Stimulus Programming in a Matching Task

    Role of Errors in Learning

    Chapter 11. Mediational Processes and Language

    Development of Language as a Mediator

    Verbal Control of Child Behavior

    A Program for the Verbal Control of Matching Behavior

    Conclusion

    Chapter 12. Kendler's Model of Discrimination Performance

    The Task

    Kendler's Symbolic Response

    The Findings

    Interaction of Behavior Chains

    Chapter 13. The Matching-to-Sample Task

    Advantages of Matching for Analysis

    Lashley's Work on Matching in Rats

    The Orienting Response in Matching

    Oddity Responding

    Chapter 14. A Model of Matching and Discrimination Performance

    Assumptions

    Model of Main Sequence of Events in Matching

    Model of Events Leading to the Orienting Responses

    Temporal Relationships of the Events in Matching

    A model of Approach-Avoidance Discrimination Performance

    1. Successive Discrimination Performance

    2. Simultaneous Discrimination Performance

    Differential Control Over Postulated Operations in Matching Model

    Chapter 15. The Perceptual Process

    Definition of Orientation

    Chapter 16. Perception of Orientation by Children

    Errors of Reversal in Reading

    Testing a Child's Perceptual Capacity

    Matching Reversible Letters

    Effect of Instruction on Reversible Letter Discrimination

    Discrimination of other Reversible Figures

    Mirror-Writing

    Recognition of Inverted Pictures and Figures

    Chapter 17. Learning and the Perception of Orientation

    Environmental Learning

    Distinctive Features Theory

    Heuristic Skills

    Kinesthetic Tracing Technique

    Experimental Studies of Orientation Learning

    1. Newson's Directional Training

    2. Jeffrey's Perceptual Response

    The perceptual Response in Matching

    3. Bijou's Stimulus Training Program

    Chapter 18. Laterality and the Perception of Orientation

    Mach's Theory of Cerebral Symmetry

    Orton's Theory of Strephosymbolia

    Evaluation of Orton's Theory

    Chapter 19. Orientation Discrimination in Animals

    Early Work

    Sutherland's Stimulus Analyzing Mechanism

    Retinal Receptive Fields of Striate Cells

    Implications for Orientation Discrimination in Children

    Chapter 20. Perceptual Activity in Discrimination Behavior

    Head Movement

    Hebb's Scanning Theory

    Ghent's Scanning Theory

    Piaget's Theory of Internalization of Perceptual Activity

    Russian Work on Perceptual Activity

    Chapter 21. Summary

    Appendix. The Method of Hypothesis Analysis

    "Hypotheses" in Discrimination Performance

    Hypothesis Analysis

    Hypothesis Analysis of Matching

    1. Hypothesis Preference

    H2. Hypothesis Habit

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 230
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1968
  • Published: January 1, 1968
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483153667

About the Author

Brian J. Fellows

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