The Discrimination Process and Development - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080125213, 9781483153667

The Discrimination Process and Development

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs in Experimental Psychology

Authors: Brian J. Fellows
eBook ISBN: 9781483153667
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1968
Page Count: 230
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The Discrimination Process and Development, Volume 5 covers the fields of behavioral theory and experimental child psychology. This book aims to develop the theory of the discrimination process and relate this theory to certain features of the perceptual and cognitive development of the child.
Organized into 21 chapters, this volume starts with a discussion of discrimination process whereby an organism responds to differences between stimuli. This text then discusses the classical discrimination experiment whereby it employs two discriminative stimuli, one of which is positive and the other negative. Other chapters consider the developmental aspects of the discrimination process. The final chapter deals with the hypothesis analysis of matching performances. This book is intended to be suitable for psychology students who are looking for an area of research less restricted than conventional learning theory, and more significant to pressing practical problems. Child psychologists and experimentalists will also find this book useful.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction

The Discrimination Process

The Process of Perception

Judgment and Response

Discrimination Learning

Discrimination and Development

Chapter 2. Classical Theories of Discrimination Learning

Pre-Solution Behavior

Non-Continuity Theory

Continuity Theory

Issue of Perceptual Selectivity

Spence and Receptor Orienting Acts


Chapter 3. Orienting Activity in Discrimination in Animals

WyckofTs Observing Response

Goodwin-Lawrence Dimension Orienting Response

Pre-And post-Reception Responses

Vicarious Trial and Error

Chapter 4. OrientingR and Attention in Children

Kurtz's Observing Response

Zeaman-House Attention Deficiency Theory

Attention-Controlling Techniques

Chapter 5. Attention, Strategies and Age

Eye Movements During Discrimination Learning

White's Account of Discrimination Learning

Position Habits

Hierarchy Theory of Sense Modalities

Control of Position Habits and Age

Age Shifts and the Regression Hypothesis

Hypothesis Regression During Matching-To-Sample

Chapter 6. Orienting and Planning

The Orientation Reaction

Zaporozhets and Orienting Behavior in Children

How Orienting Behavior Facilitates Discrimination

Nature of Voluntary Behavior

Plans and Images in Behavior

Chapter 7. S-R Spatial Contiguity and Orienting

S-R Spatial Discontiguity Effect

Double Responding on Discontiguous Tasks

Polidora-Fletcher Three-Stage Model of Discrimination Learning

Chapter 8. Switching-In Stimulus Analyzers and Coding Responses

Sutherland-Mackintosh Two-Stage Theory of Discrimination Learning

Issue of Perceptual Learning

Lawrence's Coding Response Hypothesis

Chapter 9. Discrimination Training and the Acquired Distinctiveness of Cues Hypothesis

Training a difficult discrimination

Transfer of a Discrimination Along a Continuum

Stimulus Predifferentiation

Acquired Distinctiveness of Cues Hypothesis

Chapter 10. Programming a Discrimination

Response Programming by Shaping

Stimulus Programming by Fading

Hively's Stimulus Programming in a Matching Task

Role of Errors in Learning

Chapter 11. Mediational Processes and Language

Development of Language as a Mediator

Verbal Control of Child Behavior

A Program for the Verbal Control of Matching Behavior


Chapter 12. Kendler's Model of Discrimination Performance

The Task

Kendler's Symbolic Response

The Findings

Interaction of Behavior Chains

Chapter 13. The Matching-to-Sample Task

Advantages of Matching for Analysis

Lashley's Work on Matching in Rats

The Orienting Response in Matching

Oddity Responding

Chapter 14. A Model of Matching and Discrimination Performance


Model of Main Sequence of Events in Matching

Model of Events Leading to the Orienting Responses

Temporal Relationships of the Events in Matching

A model of Approach-Avoidance Discrimination Performance

1. Successive Discrimination Performance

2. Simultaneous Discrimination Performance

Differential Control Over Postulated Operations in Matching Model

Chapter 15. The Perceptual Process

Definition of Orientation

Chapter 16. Perception of Orientation by Children

Errors of Reversal in Reading

Testing a Child's Perceptual Capacity

Matching Reversible Letters

Effect of Instruction on Reversible Letter Discrimination

Discrimination of other Reversible Figures


Recognition of Inverted Pictures and Figures

Chapter 17. Learning and the Perception of Orientation

Environmental Learning

Distinctive Features Theory

Heuristic Skills

Kinesthetic Tracing Technique

Experimental Studies of Orientation Learning

1. Newson's Directional Training

2. Jeffrey's Perceptual Response

The perceptual Response in Matching

3. Bijou's Stimulus Training Program

Chapter 18. Laterality and the Perception of Orientation

Mach's Theory of Cerebral Symmetry

Orton's Theory of Strephosymbolia

Evaluation of Orton's Theory

Chapter 19. Orientation Discrimination in Animals

Early Work

Sutherland's Stimulus Analyzing Mechanism

Retinal Receptive Fields of Striate Cells

Implications for Orientation Discrimination in Children

Chapter 20. Perceptual Activity in Discrimination Behavior

Head Movement

Hebb's Scanning Theory

Ghent's Scanning Theory

Piaget's Theory of Internalization of Perceptual Activity

Russian Work on Perceptual Activity

Chapter 21. Summary

Appendix. The Method of Hypothesis Analysis

"Hypotheses" in Discrimination Performance

Hypothesis Analysis

Hypothesis Analysis of Matching

1. Hypothesis Preference

H2. Hypothesis Habit


Author Index

Subject Index


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About the Author

Brian J. Fellows

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