The Direct Detection of Microorganisms in Clinical Samples - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121877804, 9780323152334

The Direct Detection of Microorganisms in Clinical Samples

1st Edition

Editors: J. Donald Coonrod
eBook ISBN: 9780323152334
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1983
Page Count: 398
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The Direct Detection of Microorganisms in Clinical Samples focuses on the most practical and widely used procedures for direct detection of microorganism in clinical specimens. It considers application to virology, mycology, and bacteriology. Organized into three parts, the book begins with established techniques for visualization of intact organism in clinical samples. The book then deals with immunologic techniques for detecting soluble microbial antigens. The last part considers diverse non-immunologic methods for detecting soluble constituents of organisms and their metabolites. Clinical microbiologists, infectious disease clinicians and researchers, and individuals working in analogous areas will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents




I. Visualization of Organisms in Clinical Samples

1. Microscopy in the Detection of Bacteria

I. Introduction

II. General Uses for Gram's Stain

III. Usefulness of Diagnostic Microscopy in Particular Types of Specimens or Infectious Processes

IV. Wounds, Abcesses, and Exudates

V. Conclusions


2. Microscopic Preparations for Detecting Fungi in Clinical Materials

I. Role of Microscopic Techniques in Detecting Fungi in Clinical Specimens

II. Methods for Visualizing Fungi in Clinical Materials

III. Examples of Fungi in Clinical Materials


3. Direct Immunofluorescence Identification of Bacteria in Clinical Specimens

I. Introduction

II. Important Factors in the Performance of a Test

III. Identification of Bacteria in Clinical Specimens

IV. Selection of Rapid Diagnostic Tests


4. Immunofluorescence in Viral Diagnosis

I. Introduction

II. Theory of the Method

III. Reagents

IV. Staining Method

V. Fluorescence Microscope

VI. Collection and Preparation of Specimens: Reading of Slides

VII. Use of Controls

VIII. Interpretation of Findings: Practical Aspects


II. Immunologic Methods for Detecting Soluble Antigens

5. Procedures for the Detection of Microorganisms by Counterimmunoelectrophoresis

I. Introduction

II. Principle

III. Variables

IV. Procedure for Counterimmunoelectrophoresis of Spinal Fluid, Serum, Urine, and Other Body Fluids

V. Clinical Applications of CIE


6. Application of Counterimmunoelectrophoresis to the Diagnosis of Meningitis

I. Introduction

II Meningococcal Meningitis

III. Haemophilus influenzae Meningitis

IV. Pneumococcal Meningitis

V. Group B Streptococcal Meningitis

VI. Escherichia coli Meningitis

VII. Conclusion


7. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis for the Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Respiratory and Other Infect

I. Introduction

II. Summary of the Principles of Counterimmunoelectrophoresis

III. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis Methods in Pneumococcal Infections

IV. Detection of Antigen in Clinical Samples

V. Perspective


8. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis for the Diagnosis of Intrapleural Empyema

I. Introduction

II. Methods


9. Problems with Precipitin Methods for Detecting Antigenemia in Bacterial Infections

I. Introduction

II. Variables in the Detection of Antigenemia

III. Future Trends


10. Evaluation of Counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases

I. Introduction

II. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis as the Test of Choice

III. Use of Counterimmunoelectrophoresis in Early Diagnosis

IV. Culture-Negative Diagnosis

V. Identification of Pathogens in the Presence of Mixed Flora

VI. Discussion


11. Agglutination Techniques for the Detection of Microbial Antigens: Methodology and Overview

I. Principles of Agglutination

II. Advantages and Disadvantages of Agglutination for Antigen Detection

III. Future Prospects


12. Agglutination Tests for the Diagnosis of Meningitis

I. Introduction

II. Antigen Determinants

III. Antibody Determinants

IV. Specificity of Agglutination Tests


13.Diagnosis of Pneumonia by Agglutination Techniques

I. Introduction

II. Coagglutination in Pneumonia

III. Comparison of Coagglutination and Counterimmunoelectrophoresis

IV. Specificity


14. Immunoassays in Meningitis

I. Introduction

II. Problems in the Diagnosis of Meningitis

III. Detection of Bacterial Antigens in Meningitis

IV. Fungal Meningitis: Cryptococcus neoformans

V. Conclusions and Future Prospects


15. Use of Immunoassays in Bacteremia

I. Introduction

II. Problems of Immunoassays for the Detection of Antigenemia

III. Applications to the Rapid Diagnosis of Bacteremia


16. Diagnosis of Legionnaires' Disease by Radioimmunoassay and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

I. Introduction

II. Conventional Diagnostic Tests for Legionnaires' Disease

III. Radioimmunoassay and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Legionnaires' Antigen

IV. Summary


17. Detection of Fungal Antigens in Clinical Samples

I. Introduction

II. Candidiasis

III. Aspergillus


18. Prospects for Solid-Phase Immunoassays in the Diagnosis of Respiratory Infections

I. Introduction

II. Antibody Labels

III. Assay Formats

IV. Support Systems

V. Reagents

VI. Collection of Specimens

VII. Sensitivity of Assay Systems



19. Diagnosis of Hepatitis B and Non-A, Non-B Hepatitis

I. Hepatitis A

II. Non-A, Non-B Hepatitis


20. Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Rotavirus and Norwalk Virus Infections

I. Introduction

II. Rotavirus

III. Norwalk Virus


III. Nonimmunologic Detection of Microbial Products

21. Current Uses of the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Test

I. Background and Mechanism of the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Test

II. Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Testing in the Pharmaceutical Industry

III. Clinical Applications of the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Test


22. Laboratory Diagnosis of Antimicrobial-Associated Diarrhea

I. Introduction

II. Clostridium difficile and Its Toxin

III. Laboratory Procedures


23. Perspective on the Current and Future Role of Gas—Liquid Chromatographic Analysis

I. Introduction

II. Methodology

III. Gas-Liquid Chromatography

IV. Goals of Analytical Techniques

V. Clinical Correlations

VI. Pitfalls in Analysis

VII. Future Prospects


24. Gas—Liquid Chromatography as an Aid in Rapid Diagnosis by Selective Detection of Chemical Changes in Body Fluids

I. Introduction

II. Practical Methods for Recovering Volatile Chemical Compounds from Body Fluids for Derivitization Purposes

III. Selective and Sensitive High-Resolution Gas-Liquid Chromatography Systems for Body Fluid Analysis

IV. Practical Derivatization Methods for Analysis by FPEC-GLC

V. Application of FPEC-GLC to Detection of Chemical Changes in Spent Culture Media and Infected Tissue Culture

VI. Application of FPEC-GLC to Detection of Disease-Specific Profiles in Body Fluids

VII. Identification of Unknown Peaks Detected by FPEC-GLC

VIII. Interpretation of Data Obtained by FPEC-GLC

IX. Possibilities for Automation and Computerization of Data Obtained from FPEC-GLC

X. Summary


25. Challenges in the Development of Automation for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory



26. Instrumentation for Detection of Bacteremia

I. Introduction

II. Conventional Methods

III. Alternative Modifications of Blood Cultures

IV. Summary


27. Rapid Methods and Instrumentation in the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections

I. Introduction

II. Rapid Methods

III. Instrumentation




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© Academic Press 1983
Academic Press
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About the Editor

J. Donald Coonrod

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