The Direct Detection of Microorganisms in Clinical Samples

The Direct Detection of Microorganisms in Clinical Samples

1st Edition - January 28, 1983

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  • Editor: J. Donald Coonrod
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323152334

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The Direct Detection of Microorganisms in Clinical Samples focuses on the most practical and widely used procedures for direct detection of microorganism in clinical specimens. It considers application to virology, mycology, and bacteriology. Organized into three parts, the book begins with established techniques for visualization of intact organism in clinical samples. The book then deals with immunologic techniques for detecting soluble microbial antigens. The last part considers diverse non-immunologic methods for detecting soluble constituents of organisms and their metabolites. Clinical microbiologists, infectious disease clinicians and researchers, and individuals working in analogous areas will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors



    I. Visualization of Organisms in Clinical Samples

    1. Microscopy in the Detection of Bacteria

    I. Introduction

    II. General Uses for Gram's Stain

    III. Usefulness of Diagnostic Microscopy in Particular Types of Specimens or Infectious Processes

    IV. Wounds, Abcesses, and Exudates

    V. Conclusions


    2. Microscopic Preparations for Detecting Fungi in Clinical Materials

    I. Role of Microscopic Techniques in Detecting Fungi in Clinical Specimens

    II. Methods for Visualizing Fungi in Clinical Materials

    III. Examples of Fungi in Clinical Materials


    3. Direct Immunofluorescence Identification of Bacteria in Clinical Specimens

    I. Introduction

    II. Important Factors in the Performance of a Test

    III. Identification of Bacteria in Clinical Specimens

    IV. Selection of Rapid Diagnostic Tests


    4. Immunofluorescence in Viral Diagnosis

    I. Introduction

    II. Theory of the Method

    III. Reagents

    IV. Staining Method

    V. Fluorescence Microscope

    VI. Collection and Preparation of Specimens: Reading of Slides

    VII. Use of Controls

    VIII. Interpretation of Findings: Practical Aspects


    II. Immunologic Methods for Detecting Soluble Antigens

    5. Procedures for the Detection of Microorganisms by Counterimmunoelectrophoresis

    I. Introduction

    II. Principle

    III. Variables

    IV. Procedure for Counterimmunoelectrophoresis of Spinal Fluid, Serum, Urine, and Other Body Fluids

    V. Clinical Applications of CIE


    6. Application of Counterimmunoelectrophoresis to the Diagnosis of Meningitis

    I. Introduction

    II Meningococcal Meningitis

    III. Haemophilus influenzae Meningitis

    IV. Pneumococcal Meningitis

    V. Group B Streptococcal Meningitis

    VI. Escherichia coli Meningitis

    VII. Conclusion


    7. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis for the Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Respiratory and Other Infect

    I. Introduction

    II. Summary of the Principles of Counterimmunoelectrophoresis

    III. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis Methods in Pneumococcal Infections

    IV. Detection of Antigen in Clinical Samples

    V. Perspective


    8. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis for the Diagnosis of Intrapleural Empyema

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods


    9. Problems with Precipitin Methods for Detecting Antigenemia in Bacterial Infections

    I. Introduction

    II. Variables in the Detection of Antigenemia

    III. Future Trends


    10. Evaluation of Counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases

    I. Introduction

    II. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis as the Test of Choice

    III. Use of Counterimmunoelectrophoresis in Early Diagnosis

    IV. Culture-Negative Diagnosis

    V. Identification of Pathogens in the Presence of Mixed Flora

    VI. Discussion


    11. Agglutination Techniques for the Detection of Microbial Antigens: Methodology and Overview

    I. Principles of Agglutination

    II. Advantages and Disadvantages of Agglutination for Antigen Detection

    III. Future Prospects


    12. Agglutination Tests for the Diagnosis of Meningitis

    I. Introduction

    II. Antigen Determinants

    III. Antibody Determinants

    IV. Specificity of Agglutination Tests


    13.Diagnosis of Pneumonia by Agglutination Techniques

    I. Introduction

    II. Coagglutination in Pneumonia

    III. Comparison of Coagglutination and Counterimmunoelectrophoresis

    IV. Specificity


    14. Immunoassays in Meningitis

    I. Introduction

    II. Problems in the Diagnosis of Meningitis

    III. Detection of Bacterial Antigens in Meningitis

    IV. Fungal Meningitis: Cryptococcus neoformans

    V. Conclusions and Future Prospects


    15. Use of Immunoassays in Bacteremia

    I. Introduction

    II. Problems of Immunoassays for the Detection of Antigenemia

    III. Applications to the Rapid Diagnosis of Bacteremia


    16. Diagnosis of Legionnaires' Disease by Radioimmunoassay and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    I. Introduction

    II. Conventional Diagnostic Tests for Legionnaires' Disease

    III. Radioimmunoassay and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Legionnaires' Antigen

    IV. Summary


    17. Detection of Fungal Antigens in Clinical Samples

    I. Introduction

    II. Candidiasis

    III. Aspergillus


    18. Prospects for Solid-Phase Immunoassays in the Diagnosis of Respiratory Infections

    I. Introduction

    II. Antibody Labels

    III. Assay Formats

    IV. Support Systems

    V. Reagents

    VI. Collection of Specimens

    VII. Sensitivity of Assay Systems



    19. Diagnosis of Hepatitis B and Non-A, Non-B Hepatitis

    I. Hepatitis A

    II. Non-A, Non-B Hepatitis


    20. Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Rotavirus and Norwalk Virus Infections

    I. Introduction

    II. Rotavirus

    III. Norwalk Virus


    III. Nonimmunologic Detection of Microbial Products

    21. Current Uses of the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Test

    I. Background and Mechanism of the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Test

    II. Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Testing in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    III. Clinical Applications of the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Test


    22. Laboratory Diagnosis of Antimicrobial-Associated Diarrhea

    I. Introduction

    II. Clostridium difficile and Its Toxin

    III. Laboratory Procedures


    23. Perspective on the Current and Future Role of Gas—Liquid Chromatographic Analysis

    I. Introduction

    II. Methodology

    III. Gas-Liquid Chromatography

    IV. Goals of Analytical Techniques

    V. Clinical Correlations

    VI. Pitfalls in Analysis

    VII. Future Prospects


    24. Gas—Liquid Chromatography as an Aid in Rapid Diagnosis by Selective Detection of Chemical Changes in Body Fluids

    I. Introduction

    II. Practical Methods for Recovering Volatile Chemical Compounds from Body Fluids for Derivitization Purposes

    III. Selective and Sensitive High-Resolution Gas-Liquid Chromatography Systems for Body Fluid Analysis

    IV. Practical Derivatization Methods for Analysis by FPEC-GLC

    V. Application of FPEC-GLC to Detection of Chemical Changes in Spent Culture Media and Infected Tissue Culture

    VI. Application of FPEC-GLC to Detection of Disease-Specific Profiles in Body Fluids

    VII. Identification of Unknown Peaks Detected by FPEC-GLC

    VIII. Interpretation of Data Obtained by FPEC-GLC

    IX. Possibilities for Automation and Computerization of Data Obtained from FPEC-GLC

    X. Summary


    25. Challenges in the Development of Automation for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory



    26. Instrumentation for Detection of Bacteremia

    I. Introduction

    II. Conventional Methods

    III. Alternative Modifications of Blood Cultures

    IV. Summary


    27. Rapid Methods and Instrumentation in the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections

    I. Introduction

    II. Rapid Methods

    III. Instrumentation



Product details

  • No. of pages: 398
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: January 28, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323152334

About the Editor

J. Donald Coonrod

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