The Developing Human Brain - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780723670179, 9781483281049

The Developing Human Brain

1st Edition

Growth and Epidemiologic Neuropathology

Authors: F. H. Gilles A. Leviton E. C. Dooling
eBook ISBN: 9781483281049
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st May 1983
Page Count: 360
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Description

The Developing Human Brain: Growth and Epidemiologic Neuropathology presents the analyses that study the conditions and events of pregnancy, labor, and delivery as they relate to neuropathological outcomes. This book reviews the weaknesses and strengths of epidemiologic methods applied to autopsy populations and provide the details of the neuropathologic sample.

Organized into three sections encompassing 27 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the hypotheses about the relationships between potential antecedents and morphologic events that can subsequently be tested in the living child using specific measure of cerebral or neurologic function. This text then examines the general principles of epidemiology. Other chapters consider the advantages and disadvantages of using autopsy data for epidemiologic studies. This book discusses as well the statistical and descriptive methods used to provide a panoramic view of the developing human brain based on infants aborted at different stages of development. The final chapter deals with anatomical changes at the final months of the second trimester.

This book is a valuable resource for neuropathologists, neurologists, and pathologists.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Section One Overview of Epidemiologic Methods and Material

1 Introduction

Background

Conceptual Problems

Hypothesis Generation

Pathologic Changes in Neonatal Brains

The Pathologic Material in the NINCDS Collaborative Perinatal Project

Observer Variability

The Criteria Used in this Study

The Assumptions of this Study

Goals

Confounding Factors

Range of Abnormalities

Preview

Project Directors

Pathologists

Acknowledgments

2 Epidemiologic Methods

Definitions

Analysis

3 Autopsy Data in Epidemiologic Studies

Introduction

Advantages of Autopsy Data

Disadvantages of Autopsy Data

Strategies to Minimize the Effects of Selection Bias

Summary

4 Selection Bias in the Creation of the NINCDS Collaborative Perinatal Project Neuropathology Sample

Introduction

Sample Description

Analysis #1: Correlates of Postmortem Examination

Analysis #2: Correlates of All Three Selection Processes (Death, Postmortem Examination, and Availability of Adequate Tissue)

5 Characteristics of the Neuropathology Sample

Sample Description

Processing and Observers

Check-off Sheets

Characteristics of Neonates

Samples for Risk Factor Analysis

Section Two Overview. Growth and Development of the Human Fetal Brain

6 A Model of Growth of the Human Fetal Brain

Historical Introduction to Growth Studies: Justification of Gompertz Function

Other Growth Models

Early Human Embryo Dating

Derivation of Prenatal and Postnatal Brain Growth Model

NINCDS Collaborative Perinatal Project Prenatal Brain Growth Model

Uses of the NINCDS Collaborative Perinatal Project Brain Growth Model for Subpopulation Comparisons

Autopsy Characteristics of Human Fetal Neural Tissue

7 Telecephalon Medium and the Olfacto-Cerebral Outpuching

Introduction

Materials

Reference Points and Landmarks

Olfaction

Basicranium

Fundamental Olfactory and Telencephalic Relationships

Phylogenetic Constancy of Blood Supply

Interventricular Foramen

Transverse Germinal Bar

Amygdala

Corpus Striatrum and Internal Capsule

Claustrum

Hippocampal Formation and the Medial Edge of the Cerebrum

Olfactory Placodes—Olfactory Bulbs

Tuberculum Olfactorium

Isocortex and Commissures

Summary

8 Telecephalic Development: Matrix Volume and Isocortex and Allocortex Surface Areas

Introduction

Topographic Landmarks

Material and Methods

Results

Discussion

Summary

Acknowledgment

9 Telecephalic Development: Changing Gyral Patterns

Introduction

Materials and Methods

The Primary Fissures and Sulci

Lobar Development

Special Features

Discussion

Conclusion

10 Dorsal Mesodiencephalic Junction: Pineal, Subcommissural Organ, and Mesocoelic Recess

Introduction

The Pineal

The Subcommissural Organ

11 Developmental Changes in Ventricular Epithelia

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Histologie Features

Discussion

12 Myelinated Tracts: Growth Patterns

Introduction

Materials and Ascertainment

Assumptions

Sites Evaluated

An Overview of Myelination in the Fetal Human Nervous System

Sequence of Myelination

Progression of Myelination

Myelination at the Median

Statistical Maxima

Deposition of Myelin at Each Site

Evaluation of Myelination in a New Fetal Brain

Summary

Section Three Overview. Damage to the Fetal Brain in Last Half of Gestation

13 The Epidemiology of Delayed Myelination

Introduction

Sample

Definition of Outcome

Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

Multivariate Analysis

Correlates of Discriminating Variables

Synthesis

14 Intracranial Hemorrhage: Topography

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Results

Discussion

15 The Epidemology of Ganglionic Eminence Hemorrhage

Introduction

Definitions

Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

Multivariate Analysis

Independent Variables as Dependent

Variables

Discussion

16 The Epidemiology of Subarachnoid Hemorrhages

Definition

Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

Multivariate Analysis

Risk Factors of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage as Dependent Variables

Synthesis

17 Neural Damage: Inconstancy During Gestation

Background

Kinds of Reactions in Fetal Brain

Complicating Variables

Misleading Notions

Changes During Specific Developmental Periods

Specific Events

Markers of Damage in the NCPP Population

Materials and Methods

Pathologic Processes

Sites of Occurrence of Each of the Pathologic Processes

Summary

18 Classifications of the Perinatal Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathies

Terminology

What's in a Name?

Homogeneity

How to Achieve Homogeneity

Age Classification

Decisions

19 The Epidemiology of the Perinatal Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathy Characterized by Hypertrophic Astrocytes

Introduction

Sample

Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

Multivariate Analysis of Risk

Risk Factors as Outcomes

Discussion

20 The Epidemiology of the Perinatal Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathy Characterized by Amphophilic Globules

Introduction

Sample

Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

Multivariate Analysis

Correlates of Risk Factors

Synthesis

21 The Epidemiology of the Perinatal Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathy Characterized by Focal Necrosis

Introduction

Sample

Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

Multivariate Analysis

Correlation Coefficients of Risk Factors

Proposed Mechanisms by Which the Identified RUk Factors Contribute to the Occurrence of Necrotic Foci

22 The Epidemiology of the Perinaral Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathy Characterized by Acutely Damaged Glia

Introduction

Sample

Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

Multivariate Analysis

Correlation of Risk Factors Identified by Multivariate Analysis

Synthesis

23 The Epidemiology of the Perinatal Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathy Characterized by Hypertrophic Astrocytes and Amphophilic Globules

Introduction

Sample

Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

Univariate Analysis—Decreased

Risk

Multivariate Analysis

Correlates of Discriminating Variables

Synthesis

24 The Epidemiology of the Perinatal Telencephalic Leucoencephalopathy Characterized by Hypertrophic Astrocytes and Acutely Damaged Glia

Introduction

Similar Risk Factor Hypotheses

Different Risk Factor Hypotheses

Sample

Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

Multivariate Analysis of Risk

Correlates of Identified Risk Factors

Synthesis

25 Etiologic Relationships Among the Perinatal Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathies

Introduction

Age Effects

Measures of Endotoxin Exposure

Unfavorable Uterine Environment

Congenital Anomaly Effect

Socioeconomic Effect

Synthesis

The Natural History of the Perinatal Telencephalic Leucoencephalopathies

26 Changes in Growth and Vulnerability at the End of the Second Trimester

Anatomic Changes

Changers in the Markers of Damage

27 Summary

Bibliography

Index

Details

No. of pages:
360
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1983
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483281049

About the Author

F. H. Gilles

A. Leviton

E. C. Dooling