The Developing Human Brain

The Developing Human Brain

Growth and Epidemiologic Neuropathology

1st Edition - May 1, 1983

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  • Authors: F. H. Gilles, A. Leviton, E. C. Dooling
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483281049

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Description

The Developing Human Brain: Growth and Epidemiologic Neuropathology presents the analyses that study the conditions and events of pregnancy, labor, and delivery as they relate to neuropathological outcomes. This book reviews the weaknesses and strengths of epidemiologic methods applied to autopsy populations and provide the details of the neuropathologic sample. Organized into three sections encompassing 27 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the hypotheses about the relationships between potential antecedents and morphologic events that can subsequently be tested in the living child using specific measure of cerebral or neurologic function. This text then examines the general principles of epidemiology. Other chapters consider the advantages and disadvantages of using autopsy data for epidemiologic studies. This book discusses as well the statistical and descriptive methods used to provide a panoramic view of the developing human brain based on infants aborted at different stages of development. The final chapter deals with anatomical changes at the final months of the second trimester. This book is a valuable resource for neuropathologists, neurologists, and pathologists.

Table of Contents


  • Foreword

    Section One Overview of Epidemiologic Methods and Material

    1 Introduction

    Background

    Conceptual Problems

    Hypothesis Generation

    Pathologic Changes in Neonatal Brains

    The Pathologic Material in the NINCDS Collaborative Perinatal Project

    Observer Variability

    The Criteria Used in this Study

    The Assumptions of this Study

    Goals

    Confounding Factors

    Range of Abnormalities

    Preview

    Project Directors

    Pathologists

    Acknowledgments

    2 Epidemiologic Methods

    Definitions

    Analysis

    3 Autopsy Data in Epidemiologic Studies

    Introduction

    Advantages of Autopsy Data

    Disadvantages of Autopsy Data

    Strategies to Minimize the Effects of Selection Bias

    Summary

    4 Selection Bias in the Creation of the NINCDS Collaborative Perinatal Project Neuropathology Sample

    Introduction

    Sample Description

    Analysis #1: Correlates of Postmortem Examination

    Analysis #2: Correlates of All Three Selection Processes (Death, Postmortem Examination, and Availability of Adequate Tissue)

    5 Characteristics of the Neuropathology Sample

    Sample Description

    Processing and Observers

    Check-off Sheets

    Characteristics of Neonates

    Samples for Risk Factor Analysis

    Section Two Overview. Growth and Development of the Human Fetal Brain

    6 A Model of Growth of the Human Fetal Brain

    Historical Introduction to Growth Studies: Justification of Gompertz Function

    Other Growth Models

    Early Human Embryo Dating

    Derivation of Prenatal and Postnatal Brain Growth Model

    NINCDS Collaborative Perinatal Project Prenatal Brain Growth Model

    Uses of the NINCDS Collaborative Perinatal Project Brain Growth Model for Subpopulation Comparisons

    Autopsy Characteristics of Human Fetal Neural Tissue

    7 Telecephalon Medium and the Olfacto-Cerebral Outpuching

    Introduction

    Materials

    Reference Points and Landmarks

    Olfaction

    Basicranium

    Fundamental Olfactory and Telencephalic Relationships

    Phylogenetic Constancy of Blood Supply

    Interventricular Foramen

    Transverse Germinal Bar

    Amygdala

    Corpus Striatrum and Internal Capsule

    Claustrum

    Hippocampal Formation and the Medial Edge of the Cerebrum

    Olfactory Placodes—Olfactory Bulbs

    Tuberculum Olfactorium

    Isocortex and Commissures

    Summary

    8 Telecephalic Development: Matrix Volume and Isocortex and Allocortex Surface Areas

    Introduction

    Topographic Landmarks

    Material and Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Summary

    Acknowledgment

    9 Telecephalic Development: Changing Gyral Patterns

    Introduction

    Materials and Methods

    The Primary Fissures and Sulci

    Lobar Development

    Special Features

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    10 Dorsal Mesodiencephalic Junction: Pineal, Subcommissural Organ, and Mesocoelic Recess

    Introduction

    The Pineal

    The Subcommissural Organ

    11 Developmental Changes in Ventricular Epithelia

    Introduction

    Materials and Methods

    Histologie Features

    Discussion

    12 Myelinated Tracts: Growth Patterns

    Introduction

    Materials and Ascertainment

    Assumptions

    Sites Evaluated

    An Overview of Myelination in the Fetal Human Nervous System

    Sequence of Myelination

    Progression of Myelination

    Myelination at the Median

    Statistical Maxima

    Deposition of Myelin at Each Site

    Evaluation of Myelination in a New Fetal Brain

    Summary

    Section Three Overview. Damage to the Fetal Brain in Last Half of Gestation

    13 The Epidemiology of Delayed Myelination

    Introduction

    Sample

    Definition of Outcome

    Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

    Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

    Multivariate Analysis

    Correlates of Discriminating Variables

    Synthesis

    14 Intracranial Hemorrhage: Topography

    Introduction

    Materials and Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    15 The Epidemology of Ganglionic Eminence Hemorrhage

    Introduction

    Definitions

    Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

    Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

    Multivariate Analysis

    Independent Variables as Dependent

    Variables

    Discussion

    16 The Epidemiology of Subarachnoid Hemorrhages

    Definition

    Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

    Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

    Multivariate Analysis

    Risk Factors of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage as Dependent Variables

    Synthesis

    17 Neural Damage: Inconstancy During Gestation

    Background

    Kinds of Reactions in Fetal Brain

    Complicating Variables

    Misleading Notions

    Changes During Specific Developmental Periods

    Specific Events

    Markers of Damage in the NCPP Population

    Materials and Methods

    Pathologic Processes

    Sites of Occurrence of Each of the Pathologic Processes

    Summary

    18 Classifications of the Perinatal Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathies

    Terminology

    What's in a Name?

    Homogeneity

    How to Achieve Homogeneity

    Age Classification

    Decisions

    19 The Epidemiology of the Perinatal Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathy Characterized by Hypertrophic Astrocytes

    Introduction

    Sample

    Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

    Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

    Multivariate Analysis of Risk

    Risk Factors as Outcomes

    Discussion

    20 The Epidemiology of the Perinatal Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathy Characterized by Amphophilic Globules

    Introduction

    Sample

    Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

    Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

    Multivariate Analysis

    Correlates of Risk Factors

    Synthesis

    21 The Epidemiology of the Perinatal Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathy Characterized by Focal Necrosis

    Introduction

    Sample

    Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

    Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

    Multivariate Analysis

    Correlation Coefficients of Risk Factors

    Proposed Mechanisms by Which the Identified RUk Factors Contribute to the Occurrence of Necrotic Foci

    22 The Epidemiology of the Perinaral Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathy Characterized by Acutely Damaged Glia

    Introduction

    Sample

    Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

    Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

    Multivariate Analysis

    Correlation of Risk Factors Identified by Multivariate Analysis

    Synthesis

    23 The Epidemiology of the Perinatal Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathy Characterized by Hypertrophic Astrocytes and Amphophilic Globules

    Introduction

    Sample

    Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

    Univariate Analysis—Decreased

    Risk

    Multivariate Analysis

    Correlates of Discriminating Variables

    Synthesis

    24 The Epidemiology of the Perinatal Telencephalic Leucoencephalopathy Characterized by Hypertrophic Astrocytes and Acutely Damaged Glia

    Introduction

    Similar Risk Factor Hypotheses

    Different Risk Factor Hypotheses

    Sample

    Univariate Analysis—Increased Risk

    Univariate Analysis—Decreased Risk

    Multivariate Analysis of Risk

    Correlates of Identified Risk Factors

    Synthesis

    25 Etiologic Relationships Among the Perinatal Telecephalic Leucoencephalopathies

    Introduction

    Age Effects

    Measures of Endotoxin Exposure

    Unfavorable Uterine Environment

    Congenital Anomaly Effect

    Socioeconomic Effect

    Synthesis

    The Natural History of the Perinatal Telencephalic Leucoencephalopathies

    26 Changes in Growth and Vulnerability at the End of the Second Trimester

    Anatomic Changes

    Changers in the Markers of Damage

    27 Summary

    Bibliography

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 360
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1983
  • Published: May 1, 1983
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483281049

About the Authors

F. H. Gilles

A. Leviton

E. C. Dooling

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