The Coal Handbook: Towards Cleaner Production - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857094223, 9780857097309

The Coal Handbook: Towards Cleaner Production

1st Edition

Volume 1: Coal Production

Editors: Dave Osborne
eBook ISBN: 9780857097309
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857094223
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 31st October 2013
Page Count: 776
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy



Professor Peter Fečko

Part I: Introduction and coal characterization

Chapter 1: Industrial uses of coal


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Coal use in the power generation industry

1.3 Coal use in the steel industry

1.4 Coal use in the cement industry

1.5 Coal conversion and other industries

1.6 In situ gasification

1.7 Conclusion

Chapter 2: Coal formation


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Coal formation

2.3 Coal types

2.4 Differences in coalification history

2.5 Coal properties and standards for coal classification systems

2.6 Sources of further information and advice

2.7 Future trends

2.8 References

Chapter 3: Coal petrography


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Macerals and minerals in coal

3.3 Lithotypes, microlithotypes and abnormal conditions found in coal

3.4 The impact of petrographic characteristics on the technological properties of coal

3.5 Development of modern techniques in coal petrographic analysis

3.6 Conclusion

Chapter 4: Coal resources and reserves


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Classification of coal resources and reserves

4.3 Calculation of coal resources and reserves

4.4 Reporting of coal resources and reserves

4.5 World coal reserves

4.6 Future trends

4.7 References

Chapter 5: Coal sampling


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Accounting for heterogeneity in coal sampling

5.3 Other principles of sampling

5.4 Types of sampling systems

5.5 Sample preparation

5.6 Future trends

5.7 Conclusion

5.8 References

Chapter 6: Coal analysis


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Typical metallurgical (coking) and thermal coal tests

6.3 Proximate analysis

6.4 Sulfur

6.5 Calorific value

6.6 Ultimate analysis

6.7 Carbonate carbon

6.8 Common thermal coal tests

6.9 Common coking coal tests

6.10 Petrographic analysis

6.11 Further considerations and future trends

6.12 Appendix: standards for coal quality evaluation

Part II: Coal extraction and preparation

Chapter 7: Advances in coal mining technology


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Coal extraction methods

7.3 Advances in mining technology

7.4 Systems and information

7.5 Automation in practice

7.6 Future trends and conclusions

7.7 References

Chapter 8: Underground coal gasification


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Lessons learnt from previous trials

8.3 Impact of new technologies

8.4 Current trends

8.5 Conclusion and future trends

8.6 References

Chapter 9: Coal comminution and sizing


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Coal breakers, crushers and sizers

9.3 Coal sizing: an introduction

9.4 Coal screening and classification

9.5 Conclusion

9.6 References

Chapter 10: Cleaning of coarse and small coal


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Theory

10.3 Dense medium separation

10.4 Wet gravity separation

10.5 Dry separation

10.6 Conclusion and future trends

10.7 Sources of further information and advice

10.8 References

Chapter 11: Cleaning of fine and ultrafine coal


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Fine gravity separators

11.3 Froth flotation technologies and circuit variations

11.4 Dry fine coal separations

11.5 Future trends

11.6 References

Chapter 12: Surface chemistry fundamentals in fine coal processing


12.1 Surface properties of coal

12.2 Coal flotation

12.3 Solid–liquid separation

12.4 Fine coal handleability

12.5 Rheology effects in fine coal processing

12.6 References

Chapter 13: Solid–liquid separation technologies for coal


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Overview of solid–liquid separation (SLS)

13.3 Pre-treatment

13.4 Centrifugal SLS

13.5 Vacuum filtration

13.6 Pressure filtration

13.7 Thermal drying

13.8 SLS equipment selection

13.9 Emerging and future trends

13.10 Conclusion

13.11 Sources of further information and advice

13.12 References

Chapter 14: Economic factors affecting coal preparation: plant design worldwide and case studies illustrating economic impact


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Current steam coal circuit design

14.3 Current metallurgical coal circuit design

14.4 Case studies

14.5 Poorly liberated coal

14.6 Water constrained plants

14.7 Future trends

14.8 References

Chapter 15: Post-treatment of coal


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Estimating required liberation size

15.3 Milling coal for liberation

15.4 Chemically treating raw coal for liberation

15.5 Beneficiation

15.6 Chemical cleaning

15.7 Dewatering

15.8 Drying

15.9 Separation of clays

15.10 Other technologies

15.11 Acknowledgements

15.12 References

15.13 Appendix: Nomenclature and abbreviations used

Chapter 16: Treatment of coal tailings


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Thickening

16.3 Tailings’ dewatering technologies

16.4 Water recirculation, discharge and process control

16.5 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 17: Optimization, simulation and control of coal preparation plants


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Yield maximization

17.3 Circuit simulation

17.4 Industrial case studies

17.5 Conclusion

17.6 Future trends

17.7 References

Part III: Coal supply chain

Chapter 18: Supply chain management for bulk materials in the coal industry


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Implementation approach

18.3 The raw material value chain

18.4 Customer-related management aspects

18.5 Optimisation

18.6 Future trends

18.7 References

Chapter 19: Coal conveying


19.1 Introduction to belt conveyor technology

19.2 Belt selection

19.3 Design of large conveyor systems

19.4 Integrated crushing systems

19.5 References

Chapter 20: Coal handling along the supply chain


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Conveying

20.3 Coal storage

20.4 Shiploading/unloading and trainloading/ unloading

20.5 Crushing stations

20.6 Auxiliaries

20.7 Conclusion

Chapter 21: Transportation by rail and sea in the coal industry


21.1 Introduction: the coal transportation system

21.2 Rail car loading

21.3 Ships and ship loading: fundamental issues

21.4 Achieving high shiploading rates and safe carriage of cargo

21.5 Deballasting and transportable moisture limit (TML)

21.6 Pit-to-port and end-user simulation

21.7 Optimization of existing facilities

21.8 Delivery–cycle challenges

21.9 Trends in cargo shipping

21.10 Trends in terminal developments

21.11 Coal port and shipping route projects in planning or progress

21.12 Conclusion

21.13 Dedication

21.14 References

21.15 Appendix: common shipping terms



Coal is an important fossil fuel resource for many nations due to its large remaining resources, relatively low production and processing cost and potential high energy intensity. Certain issues surround its utilisation, however, including emissions of pollutants and growing concern about climate change. The coal handbook: Towards cleaner production Volume 1 reviews the coal production supply chain from analysis to extraction and distribution.

Part one explores coal characterisation and introduces the industrial use of coal as well as coal formation, petrography, reserves, sampling and analysis. Part two moves on to review coal extraction and preparation. Chapters highlight advances in coal mining technology, underground coal gas extraction, coal sizing, comminution and cleaning, and solid-liquid separation technologies for coal. Further chapters focus on economic factors affecting coal preparation, post-treatment of coal, coal tailings treatment, and the optimisation, simulation and control of coal preparation plants. Finally, part three considers aspects of the coal supply chain including the management approach and individual functions such as coal blending and homogenisation, transportation and handling along the entire supply chain.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, The coal handbook Volumes 1 and 2 is a comprehensive and invaluable resource for professionals in the coal mining, preparation, and utilisation industry, those in the power sector, including plant operators and engineers, and researchers and academics interested in this field.

Key Features

  • Reviews the coal production supply chain from analysis to extraction and distribution
  • Explores coal characterisation, formation, petrography, reserves, sampling and analysis
  • Examines coal extraction and preparation and highlights advances in coal mining technology, underground coal gas extraction, coal sizing, comminution and cleaning, and solid-liquid separation technologies


Experts, engineers and managers in research institutes for mining, metallurgy and materials science, steel industry, mining companies and steel plant building companies; University students and academics in the fields of metallurgy and materials engineering, mining, and environmental management and recycling


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© Woodhead Publishing 2013
Woodhead Publishing
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About the Editors

Dave Osborne Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Xstrata Technology Pty Ltd, Australia