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The Clinical Biology of Sodium: The Physiology and Pathophysiology of Sodium in Mammals presents a comparative view of mammalian sodium regulation and its clinical disturbances. This book covers a wide range of topics, including the physiological basis of fluid therapy, oral rehydration for diarrhea, the pathogenesis of edema, hypovolemia, endocrine regulation and disturbances, and nutritional requirement.
Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the distribution and physiological functions of sodium. This text then explores the two processes that provide the basis of most of the non-endocrine functions of the kidneys, namely, glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption of sodium. Other chapters consider the avoidable human and material costs of hypertension. This book discusses as well the molecular biology of sodium transport. The final chapter deals with the three mechanisms capable of detecting changes in cardiovascular filling.
This book is a valuable resource for doctors, nurses, and veterinarians.
1. Body Sodium in Context: Distribution, Functions and Regulation
Introduction: Some Problems in Context
Distribution and Concentration of Sodium
Sodium in Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid
Functions of Sodium
Sodium Transport: Na-K ATPase
Factors Affecting Activity
2. Renal Sodium Regulation
Segmental Distribution of Sodium Reabsorption
Effects of Hypovolaemia
Endocrine Aspects of Renal Sodium Regulation
Loop of Henlé
Ascending Thick Limb
Regulation of ADH Release
Immaturity of Renal Function
3. Enteric Sodium Uptake
Enteric Sodium Transport
Enteric Sodium Regulation
Enteric Responses to Changes in Sodium Balance
Principles and Criteria of Efficacy
Sequestration: Third Space'
4. Behavioural Regulation of Sodium Intake
An Assumed Need, or a Real One?
Early Studies of Salt Appetite
Studies in Sodium-Depleted Sheep
1. Neural Aspects
Other Brain Mechanisms
2. Humoral Aspects
Adrenal Hormones and Angiotensin
3. Salt Appetite and Hypertension
4. Biological Role of Salt Appetite
Na, K and the Sodium Transport Hypothesis of Salt Appetite
5. Physiological Basis of Nutritional Requirement for Sodium
Subjectivity, Science and Sodium Intake
Sodium Requirement and Normality, an Elusive Relationship
Attitudes, Beliefs and Prejudice
Definition of Requirement; Factorial, Empirical—and Pitfalls
Comparative Aspects of Sodium Requirement
Ruminants, Horses and Pigs
6. Comparative Aspects of Salt and Hypertension
What Matters about Hypertension?
Nutrition and Blood Pressure; Influences other than Sodium
Lipids and Fibre
Magnesium and Potassium
Sodium and Possible Mechanisms of Hypertension
The Natriuretic Hormone (ASTI) Hypothesis
Effects of Hypertension on Fluids and Electrolytes
Salt and Human Hypertension
Comparative Aspects of Hypertension
Conclusion: Salt and Hypertension—Whose Decision?
7. Endocrine Effects on Normal and Abnormal Sodium Excretion
Aldosterone: Regulation and Effects
Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)
8. Clinical Aspects of Extracellular Volume and Sodium Concentration
Sodium Depletion, Dehydration and Plasma Sodium
Sodium Excess: Hypertension and Oedema
Other Aspects of Abnormal Sodium Balance
Hypertonic, Hypotonic and Isotonic Dehydration
1. Volume Excess
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
2. Sodium Concentration: Hypernatraemia and Hyponatraemia
3. Volume Depletion
Anaesthesia and Surgery
Hypovolaemia and Shock
Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison's disease)
Heat and Exertion
4. Renal Dysfunction
Chronic Renal Failure
Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
9. Interactions Between Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium
Physiological and Clinical Implications
10. Clinical Disturbances of Sodium Transport
Disorders of Muscle Excitation
Down's Syndrome: Alzheimer's Disease
Polycystic Kidney Disease
Renal Tubular Acidosis (and Fanconi Syndrome)
11. Drugs Affecting Sodium Transport and Sodium Balance
Other Side Effects
12. Concluding Synthesis
- No. of pages:
- © Pergamon 1995
- 1st January 1995
- eBook ISBN:
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