Description

The Clinical Biology of Sodium: The Physiology and Pathophysiology of Sodium in Mammals presents a comparative view of mammalian sodium regulation and its clinical disturbances. This book covers a wide range of topics, including the physiological basis of fluid therapy, oral rehydration for diarrhea, the pathogenesis of edema, hypovolemia, endocrine regulation and disturbances, and nutritional requirement. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the distribution and physiological functions of sodium. This text then explores the two processes that provide the basis of most of the non-endocrine functions of the kidneys, namely, glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption of sodium. Other chapters consider the avoidable human and material costs of hypertension. This book discusses as well the molecular biology of sodium transport. The final chapter deals with the three mechanisms capable of detecting changes in cardiovascular filling. This book is a valuable resource for doctors, nurses, and veterinarians.

Table of Contents


Preface

Introduction

1. Body Sodium in Context: Distribution, Functions and Regulation

Introduction: Some Problems in Context

Distribution and Concentration of Sodium

Basic Principles

Simple Disturbances

Oedema

Bone Sodium

Sodium in Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid

Functions of Sodium

Sodium Transport: Na-K ATPase

Isoforms

Factors Affecting Activity

Na+-H+ Exchange

Conclusion

2. Renal Sodium Regulation

Introduction

Segmental Distribution of Sodium Reabsorption

Effects of Hypovolaemia

Endocrine Aspects of Renal Sodium Regulation

Glomerular Filtration

Ultrafiltration

Proximal Reabsorption

Loop of Henlé

Ascending Thick Limb

Regulation of ADH Release

Distal Nephron

Immaturity of Renal Function

Conclusion

3. Enteric Sodium Uptake

Introduction

Enteric Sodium Transport

Enteric Sodium Regulation

Enteric Responses to Changes in Sodium Balance

Diarrhoea

Oral Rehydration

Principles and Criteria of Efficacy

Amino Acids

Bicarbonate Precursors

Sodium

Sequestration: Third Space'

Iatrogenic Disturbances

Conclusion

4. Behavioural Regulation of Sodium Intake

General Issues

An Assumed Need, or a Real One?

Experimental Approaches

Early Studies of Salt Appetite

Studies in Sodium-Depleted Sheep

1. Neural Aspects

Taste

Details

No. of pages:
388
Language:
English
Copyright:
© 1995
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
Print ISBN:
9780080408422
Electronic ISBN:
9781483100821