The Chromatography of Steroids - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080095448, 9781483184579

The Chromatography of Steroids

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs on Pure and Applied Biology: Biochemistry

Authors: I. E. Bush
Editors: R. K. Callow P. N. Campbell S. P. Datta
eBook ISBN: 9781483184579
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1961
Page Count: 460
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Description

The Chromatography of Steroids details the fundamental concepts and underlying principles of laboratory techniques utilized in separating steroid mixtures.
The text first covers the basic theory of chromatography, and then proceeds to tackling the chromatographic separation of steroids. Next, the selection details the techniques and apparatus employed in chromatography of steroids. Chapter IV talks about the colorimetric and radioisotopic techniques, while Chapter V deals with the structural analysis and identification of steroids by chromatography. The text also coves the typical analytical problems of steroid biochemistry. The book will be of great use to researchers who utilizes chromatographic methods in their work with steroids.

Table of Contents


Preface

Glossaries

1. Symbols and Terms

2. Description of Solvent Systems

3. The Structure and Nomenclature of the Steroids

I. The Basic Theory of Chromatography and Some General Principles

1. Introductory

2. Derivation of RF and RM Values

3. Solvent-Solute Interactions

4. Chemical Structure and Chromatographic Behavior

5. Partition Coefficients and Solvent Systems

6. The Effect of Temperature

7. Formation of Several Species of Solute

II. Chromatographic Separation of Steroids

Section 1: Descriptive

1. Introduction

2. Special Features of the Chromatography of Steroids

3. Adsorption Methods

4. Partition Chromatography

Section 2: Quantitative Treatment of Steroid Behavior on Chromatograms

1. ΔRMg Values in Typical Solvent Systems

2. ΔRMg Values in Atypical Solvent Systems

3. ΔRMg and RMr Values

4. Solvent-Solute Interactions and ΔRMg Values

III. Techniques and Apparatus

1. Transfer Operations and Volumetric Error

(a) Transfer to Adsorption Columns

(b) Transfer to Partition Columns

(c) Transfer of Material to Paper Chromatograms

2. Column Chromatography

(a) Preparation of Adsorption Columns

(b) Preparation of Partition Columns

(c) Design and Operation of Columns

(d) Multiple-Column Chromatography

3. Paper Chromatography

(a) Preparation of Sheets and Strips

(b) Impregnation of Paper with Stationary Phases

(c) No-Touch Technique for Preparing Paper Chromatograms

(d) Operation of Chromatography Tanks

(e) Ways of Running Paper Chromatograms

(f) Temperature Control

(g) General Features of Methods of Detection

(h) Special Features of Methods of Detection

(i) The Use of Dyes and Markers

(j) Elution of Material From Paper

(k) Preparative Paper Chromatography

4. Preparation of Extracts Suitable for Chromatography

(a) General

(b) Animal Tissues

(c) Blood and Plasma

(d) Sweat, Feces, Urine

IV. Quantitative Chromatography: Colorimetric and Radioisotopic Techniques

1. Introduction

2. General Procedure

3. Chromatographic Selectivity

4. Modifying Steps

5. Chromatographic Technique in Quantitative Methods

6. Direct Scanning of Paper Chromatograms

(a) Treatment of Paper Strips with Reagents

(b) Solvents and Reagents Suitable for Scanning Methods

(c) Treatment of Strips after the Reagent Has Been Applied

(d) Optical Requirements

(e) Geometrical and Planimetric Methods

(f) Electronic Recording Apparatus

(g) Fully Automatic Apparatus

7. Logistics of Quantitative Estimations Using Chromatography

8. Use of Radioactive Isotopes in Quantitative Chromatography

9. Complication and Simplicity

V. Structural Analysis and Identification of Steroids by Chromatography

1. The Basis of the Classical Method

2. The Basis of Chromatographic Identification

3. General Procedure for Structure Determination

4. Examples of Structure Determination

(a) Cortisol

(b) 2α-Me-P4-6ß, 11ß, 17α, 20ξ, 21-ol-3-One

(c) 9α-F-αP-3α, 11ß, 17α, 21-ol-20-One

(d) 18-Hydroxyöestrone

5. Systematic Investigation of Unknown Steroids

6. General Properties of Simple Functional Groups

(a) Changes By Chemical Modification —ΔRMr Values

(b) Solvent Changes — ΔRms Values

7. Special Properties of Simple and Complex Functional Groups

(a) ΔRMr on Modification

(b) ΔRMs on Change of Solvent System

8. Spectroscopic Properties, Color and Fluorescence Reactions

9. Future Developments

10. General Procedure Using ΔRMs and ΔRMg Values

VI. Some Typical Analytical Problems of Steroid Biochemistry

1. Introduction

2. Cortisol in Human Blood

3. Oestrogens in Human Urine

4. Progesterone in Blood or Urine

5. Aldosterone in Urine

(a) Direct Fluorimetry on Paper

(b) Fluorimetry in Potassium-t-Butoxide

(c) Assay of Tritium-Labeled Acetoxyl Groups

6. Testosterone in Blood or Urine

7. Difficult Separations of Non-Polar Steroids

8. Conjugates of Urinary Steroids

9. Fractionation and Estimation of Urinary Steroids

(a) Fraction 1

(b) Fraction 2

(c) Fraction 3

(d) More Complete Fractionation of Urine

(e) Δ4-3-Ketones

(f) Pregnane-3α,20α-Diol

(g) Reducing Metabolites in the Presence of Steroid Analogues

(h) Non-Alcoholic Steroid Ketones

10. Conclusion

Appendices

I. Purification of Reagents and Materials

1. Solvents

2. Adsorbents

3. Kieselguhr ("Celite")

4. Cellulose

5. Glassware

6. Reagents

II. Microchemical Reactions for Steroids

III. Methods of Detection on Paper Chromatograms

1. Selective Absorption of Light

2. Color and Fluorescence Reactions

3. Detection of Radioactive Material

IV. Calculations with RF and RM Values

How to Use the Tables

References

Name Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
460
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1961
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483184579

About the Author

I. E. Bush

About the Editor

R. K. Callow

P. N. Campbell

S. P. Datta