Non-sag (NS) tungsten is a dispersion-strengthened microalloy with elemental potassium, which is contained as microscopic bubbles in the tungsten lattice. Under working conditions in an incandescent lamp the potassium is a gas under high pressure. These gas bubbles essentially prevent the recrystallization of the tungsten wire and are responsible for the outstanding creep resistance of NS tungsten at the extremely high temperatures of a glowing lamp filament. More than 90% of NS tungsten is used for incandescent lamps. In addition, small amounts are used as defroster heating wires in automobile windshields and as heating wire coils for aluminium evaporation in metallization applications.
The presented papers deal with the chemical reactions and the chemical compounds occurring along the path from tungsten raw materials to the final NS tungsten filament; a compendium of present knowledge on the different chemical aspects of NS tungsten manufacture is presented. It is composed of nine individual papers, each of them written by experts working in the field.
For academic metallurgists and researchers working within the lighting industry.
Dedication. Forward. List of contributors. Aspects of effective doping and the incorporation of dopant (J. Neugebauer, L. Bartha). From tungsten concentrates and scrap to highly pure ammonium paratungstate (APT) (E. Lassner). Effluent-free manufacture of ammonium paratungstate (APT) by recycling the byproducts (K. Vadasdi). Crystallisation and processing of ammonium paratungstate (APT) (J.W. van Put). Chemistry of tungsten oxide bronzes (L. Bartha, A.B. Kiss, T. Szalay). The crystal chemistry of higher tungsten oxides (R.J.D. Tilley). Tungsten blue oxide (E. Lassner, W.-D. Schubert). Formation and incorporation of dopant phases during technical reduction of NS-doped tungsten blue oxide (W.-D. Schubert, B. Lux, B. Zeiler). The formation and the role of potassium bubbles in NS-doped tungsten (B.P. Bewlay, C.L. Briant). Comments of the editors. Index.
- © Pergamon 1995
- 16th November 1995
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Research Institute for Technical Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Vienna University of Technology, Austria