The Chemistry of Lignin

The Chemistry of Lignin

Covering the Literature for the Years 1949–1958

1st Edition - January 1, 1960

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  • Authors: Friedrich Emil Brauns, Dorothy Alexandra Brauns
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483275956

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The Chemistry of Lignin provides a critical review of the literature published from 1949 to 1958. This book provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of lignin chemistry. Organized into 27 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the derivatives that are prepared for the characterization of the mother substance. This text then examines the various kinds of lignin and biosynthetic lignin-like products, which have been characterized by their behavior toward oxidation with nitrobenzene and alkali. Other chapters consider the morphological distribution of lignin in the wood fiber and the place of origin of lignin precursors and of the lignification process. This book discusses as well the formation or biosynthesis of lignin in plants and reviews the structure, isolation, and biosynthesis of lignin. The final chapter deals with producing lignin by the action of enzymes. This book is a valuable resource for lignin chemists, scientists, research workers, and botanists.

Table of Contents

  • I. Introduction

    II. The Evolution of Lignin Chemistry

    III. The Definition and Distribution of Lignin

    IV. Color Reactions of Lignified Materials

    A. Introduction

    B. Color Reactions with Aliphatic Compounds

    C. Color Reactions with Phenolic Compounds

    D. Color Reactions with Aromatic Amines

    E. Color Reactions with Heterocyelic Compounds

    F. Color Reactions with Inorganic Reagents

    G. Color Reactions with Dyestuffs

    V. The Isolation of Lignin

    A. Preparation of the Plant Material

    B. Native Lignins

    C. Insoluble Lignins

    D. Organosolv Lignins

    E. Lignins Extracted with Inorganic Reagents

    F. Lignin Isolated by Hydrotropic Solvents

    G. Lignin Isolated by a Mild Hydrogenation

    H. Lignins Isolated from Barks

    VI. The Determination of Lignin

    A. Introduction

    B. Direct Methods

    C. Indirect Methods

    D. Determination of Lignin in Spent Sulfite Liquor

    E. Comparison of Lignin Determination Methods

    F. Some Reported Lignin Contents

    VII. The Physical Properties of Lignin

    A. Introduction

    B. Solubility

    C. Melting Point

    D. Heat of Combustion

    E. Color

    F. Density

    G. Viscosity

    H. Molecular Weight

    I. Spreading Experiments

    J. The Colloidal Nature of Lignin

    K. The Electrophoresis of Lignin

    L. X-Ray Investigations of Lignin

    M. Refractive Index

    N and O. Optical Activity and Fluorescence of Lignin

    P. and Q. Ultraviolet and Infrared Absorption Spectra

    VIII. The Elementary Composition and Constituent Groups of Lignin

    A. Elementary Composition

    B. The Phenylpropane Carbon Structure

    C. Methoxyl Groups

    D. Hydroxyl Groups

    E. The Carbonyl Group

    F. Carboxyl Groups

    G. Double Bonds

    IX. The Acylation and Acylysis of Lignin

    X. The Alkylation of Lignin

    XI. The Halogenation of Lignin

    A. Fluorination

    B. Chlorination

    C. Bromination

    D. Iodination

    XII. The Nitration of Lignin

    A. Introduction

    B. The Action of Nitric Acid on Protolignin

    C. Nitrolignins from Isolated Lignins

    D. The Nitric Acid Pulping Process

    XIII. The Sulfonation of Lignin

    A. Introduction

    B. The Sulfonation of Protolignin

    C. The Sulfonation of Isolated Lignins

    D. Reactions with Low-sulfonated Lignosulfonic Acids

    E. The Effect of Phenolic Compounds on the Sulfonation of Lignin

    F. The Sulfonation of Model Substances

    G. Miscellaneous Research with Lignosulfonic Acid and Spent Sulfite Liquors

    H. Theoretical Aspects of the Sulfonation of Lignin

    XIV. The Hydrolysis of Lignin

    A. In an Aqueous Neutral Solution

    B. In an Alkaline Medium

    C. Acid Hydrolysis

    XV. The Alcoholysis of Lignin

    A. Introduction

    B. Alcohol Lignins

    C. Polyalcohol Lignins

    D. Alcoholysis to Monomolecular Lignin Building Stones

    E. Theories on the Formation of Alcohol Lignin

    XVI. The Mercaptolysis of Lignin

    A. Introduction

    B. Protolignin

    C. Isolated Lignins

    D. Reactions with Model Compounds

    E. Conclusions

    XVII. The Phenolysis of Lignin

    XVIII. Reduction, Hydrogenation, and Hydrogenolysis of Lignin

    XIX. The Oxidation of Lignin

    A. Introduction

    B. Oxidation in a Neutral Solution

    C. In an Acid Medium

    D. In an Alkaline Medium

    XX. The Alkali Fusion of Lignin

    XXI. Special Reactions with Lignin

    A. The Condensation of Lignin with Halofatty Acids

    B. The Condensation of Lignin with Maleic and Succinic Anhydride

    C. The Condensation of Lignin with Methylene Iodide

    D. The Condensation of Lignin with Acetylene

    E. The Condensation of Lignin with Formaldehyde

    F. The Condensation of Lignin with Dimethylamine, or Piperidine, and Formaldehyde

    G. The Condensation of Lignin with Hexamethylenetetramine

    H. The Condensation of Lignin with Thiourea

    I. An Attempted Kolbe-Schmidt Reaction with Protolignin

    J. The Action of Sodium in Liquid Ammonia on Lignin

    K. The Effect of Irradiation on Lignin

    L. The Effect of Gamma Radiation on Lignin

    ΧΧII. The Thermal Decomposition of Lignin

    XXIII. The Biological Decomposition of Lignin

    A. Decomposition by Digestive Microörganisms (Metabolism of Lignin)

    B. Decomposition by Soil Microörganisms

    C. Decomposition by Wood-Destroying Fungi

    XXIV. Theories on the Structure of Lignin

    XXV. The Linkage of Lignin in the Plant

    XXVI. The Biosynthesis of Lignin

    A. Introduction

    B. The Lignification Process

    C. The Biosynthesis of Lignin Building Stones

    D. The Biosynthesis of Ligninlike Products

    E. Conclusions

    XXVII. Synthetic Lignins


    A. Methods

    B. Commercial Lignins

    C. The Utilization of Lignin

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 814
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1960
  • Published: January 1, 1960
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483275956

About the Authors

Friedrich Emil Brauns

Dorothy Alexandra Brauns

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