The Chemical Physics of Solid Surfaces and Heterogeneous Catalysis

The Chemical Physics of Solid Surfaces and Heterogeneous Catalysis

1st Edition - February 1, 1988

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  • Editor: D.A. King
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601308

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Surface Properties of Electronic Materials is the fifth volume of the series, The Chemical Physics of Solid Surfaces and Heterogeneous Catalysis. This volume indicates the present state of some basic properties of semiconductor surfaces. Chapter one summarizes the general problems in electronic materials and the areas affected by the surface science methods. The next two chapters illustrate the existing perception of the electronic and structural properties of elemental and compound semiconductor surfaces. This volume also deals with the properties of adsorption of semiconductors relating to both relevant gas phase species and metals. Chapters four to six of this volume explore compound semiconductors and elemental semiconductors. The remaining chapters of this volume explore the adsorption of metals on elemental semiconductors; aspects of growth kinetics and dynamics involved in molecular beam epitaxy; molecular beam epitaxy of silicon; insulators; and metastable phases. The last chapter covers the surface chemistry of dry etching processes.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter 1 Surface science and electronic materials. An overview

    1. Introduction

    2. Semiconductor surfaces and interfaces

    2.1 Surface states and space charge layers

    2.2 Clean semiconductor surfaces

    2.3 Normal semiconductor surfaces

    3. Metal-semiconductor interfaces

    3.1 Schottky barriers on semiconductors

    3.2 Ohmic contacts

    3.3 Metals on oxidised semiconductor surfaces

    4. Semiconductor-semiconductor interfaces

    4.1 Crystal growth

    4.2 Band discontinuities

    4.3 Insulators on semiconductors


    Chapter 2 Structural and electronic properties of elemental semiconductors and surfaces

    1. Introduction

    2. Bonding and electronic states in bulk silicon

    3. The atomic geometry of the Si(100) (2 ×1) surface

    4. The atomic geometry of the cleaved Si (111) (2 × 1) surface

    5. The atomic geometry of the equilibrium Si(111) (7 × 7) surface

    6. The “new” reconstructions



    Chapter 3 Atomic geometry and electronic structure of tetrahedrally coordinated compound semiconductor interfaces

    1. Introduction

    2. Zincblende(110)

    2.1 Nomenclature and background

    2.2 Structural chemistry

    2.3 Theory

    2.4 GaAs

    2.5 Other binary semiconductors

    3. Adsorbate structures on zincblende(110)

    3.1 Al on GaAs(110). Reactive chemisorption

    3.2 Sb on III-V(110). Saturated chemisorption

    4. Polar surfaces of zincblende structure materials

    4.1 GaAs(111)-(2 × 2)

    4.2 GaAs(001)

    4.3 GaAs(311)

    5. Wurtzite structure materials. ZnO

    6. Synopsis



    Chapter 4 Adsorption and Schottky barrier formation on compound semiconductor surfaces

    1. Introduction

    2. Gas-phase adsorption

    2.1 III-V substrates

    2.2 Other compound semiconductor substrates

    2.3 Future directions in gas-phase adsorption

    3. Semiconductor adsorption on semiconductor substrates. Heterojunction interfaces

    3.1 Band lineups. Theoretical aspects

    3.2 Future directions. Band lineup control

    4. Adsorption of metals. Schottky barrier formation

    4.1 Historical background. A synopsis

    4.2 The extended metal-semiconductor interface

    4.3 Fermi level stabilization at clean interfaces

    4.4 Buried metal-semiconductor interfaces

    4.5 Control of interface electronic properties by atomic-scale techniques

    4.6 Perspectives on Schottky barrier formation



    Chapter 5 Adsorption on elemental semiconductors

    1. Introduction

    2. Preparation of clean surfaces

    3. Intrinsic structure of Si surfaces

    3.1 Structure model for Si(111) 2 x 1

    3.2 Structure model for Si(111) 7 x 7

    3.3 Structure model for Si(100)

    4. Intrinsic structure of Ge surfaces

    5. Adsorption on Si

    5.1 The adsorption of hydrogen on Si

    5.2 The adsorption of oxygen on Si

    5.3 The adsorption of water on Si

    5.4 The adsorption of fluorine on Si

    5.5 The adsorption of noble gases on Si

    6. Adsorption on Ge

    6.1 The adsorption of hydrogen on Ge

    6.2 The adsorption of oxygen on Ge

    6.3 The adsorption of water on Ge

    7. Summary



    Chapter 6 Adsorption and reaction of metals on elemental semiconductors

    1. Introduction

    2. Structural evidence for the reaction at room temperature

    3. The electronic states of suicides

    3.1 Suicides of near noble metals

    3.2 Suicides of refractory metals

    3.3 Suicides of the precursors of transition metals

    3.4 Noble metal-silicon systems

    4. The interface reaction as seen with electronic state spectroscopy

    5. A scheme for interface growth at room temperature

    6. Selected topics connected with the scheme of interface growth

    6.1 Theoretical results relevant to the incubation stage

    6.2 The concept of critical thickness

    6.3 The formation of clusters in interface growth

    6.4 The importance of the substrate conditions

    6.5 Systems with strong chemical interaction

    6.6 Systems with weak chemical interaction

    6.7 Buried interfaces


    Chapter 7 Molecular beam epitaxy of III-V compounds. Aspects of growth kinetics and dynamics

    1. Introduction

    2. The GaAs(001) surface

    2.1 Surface stoichiometry and reconstruction

    2.2 Surface crystallography and electronic structure

    3. Thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the MBE process

    3.1 Surface reaction kinetics

    3.2 Models of GaAs surface kinetics from the application of modulated beam techniques

    4. Growth dynamics

    4.1 Basic effects and first order models

    4.2 Multiple scattering effects

    4.3 Applications of the RHEED intensity oscillation technique to growth dynamic studies



    Chapter 8 Molecular beam epitaxy of silicon and related materials

    1. Introduction

    2. Molecular beam epitaxy

    3. The technology of MBE

    3.1 The UHV system

    3.2 Evaporation and ion sources

    3.3 Flux distribution and deposit uniformity

    3.4 Diagnostic and monitoring equipment

    4. Substrate preparation

    4.1 Thermal annealing/reactive-beam treatment

    4.2 Ion sputter cleaning

    5. Crystallographic perfection

    5.1 Crystallographic quality

    5.2 Evaluation of extended defects

    6. Evaluation of undoped homoepitaxial silicon

    7. Doping

    7.1 Co-evaporation doping

    7.2 Potential enhanced doping (doping by secondary implantation)

    7.3 Low-energy dopant ion implantation

    8. Suicides

    8.1 Nickel disilicide

    8.2 Cobalt disilicide

    9. Silicon-on-insulator structures

    9.1 Growth on insulating substrates

    9.2 Si on porous Si

    9.3 Alkaline earth/Si heterostructures

    10. The Six Ge1 - x system

    11. Device applications

    11.1 Two-terminal devices

    11.2 Three-terminal devices and integration

    12. Future prospects



    Chapter 9 Molecular beam epitaxy of insulators, metastable phases and II-VI compounds

    1. Introduction

    2. Factors controlling the range of materials accessible to MBE growth techniques

    2.1 General considerations

    2.2 Epitaxy of inorganic fluorides

    2.3 Metastable phases

    2.4 II-VI compounds and alloys

    3. MBE growth and properties of epitaxial insulators

    3.1 CaF2/Si

    3.2 Lanthanide trifluorides on semiconductors

    3.3 Transition-metal difluoride epitaxy

    4. MBE growth and properties of metastable phases

    4.1 α-Sn/InSb and α-Sn/CdTe

    4.2 Magnetic transition metals

    5. MBE growth and properties of II-VI compounds

    5.1 MBE growth and properties of CdTe/InSb

    5.2 MBE growth of CdTe/Cd1 - xMnx multilayer structures

    6. Applications and future directions

    6.1 Epitaxial insulators

    6.2 Metastable phases

    6.3 II-VI compounds

    7. Conclusions



    Chapter 10 Surface chemistry of dry etching processes

    1. Introduction

    2. Halogen atom reactions with semiconductors and metals

    3. Ion bombardment effects

    4. Synergistic effects

    5. Surface compositional modification

    6. Film formation in halocarbon discharges



Product details

  • No. of pages: 488
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1988
  • Published: February 1, 1988
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601308

About the Editor

D.A. King

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