The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128019429, 9780128019566

The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

1st Edition

Experimental Approaches to Clinical Issues

Editors: David Cechetto Nina Weishaupt
eBook ISBN: 9780128019566
Paperback ISBN: 9780128019429
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 21st October 2016
Page Count: 340
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Description

The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Experimental Approaches to Clinical Issues focuses on how pre-clinical investigations are addressing the clinical issues surrounding the involvement of the cerebral cortex in selected conditions of the nervous system, including Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s, addiction, and cardiovascular dysregulation.

Each chapter is written by an expert in his/her field who provides a comprehensive review of the clinical manifestations of cortical involvement and experimental techniques currently available to tackle cortical issues in disease. Thus, this present title provides a link between cortical clinical problems and investigational approaches to help foster future research with high translational value.

Key Features

  • Offers a comprehensive overview on the best available in vivo and in vitro models to study cortical involvement
  • Presents models and specific techniques that help to guide investigators in their choices on how to address research questions experimentally
  • Provides expert commentary and a perspective on future trends at the end of each chapter
  • Addresses translational advances and promising therapeutic options
  • Includes references to key articles for additional detailed study

Readership

Graduate students, postdoctoral fellows & early career researchers in the neurosciences and the biological/biomedical sciences

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Introduction
  • Part I. Introductory Chapters
    • Chapter 1. Anatomy of the Cerebral Cortex
      • Introduction
      • Cortical Areas
      • Cortical Layers
      • Cortical Verticality (Columns)
      • Cell Types
      • Connections
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 2. Cortical Plasticity in Response to Injury and Disease
      • Plasticity: A Major Player in Recovery From Central Nervous System Injury and Disease
      • Systems Level Plasticity
      • Plasticity at the Microanatomical Level
      • How Can We Promote and Modify Plasticity?
      • Beware the Dark Side of Plasticity
      • Challenges and Hopes for the Investigation of Central Nervous System Plasticity
    • Chapter 3. Imaging Approaches to Cerebral Cortex Pathology
      • Introduction
      • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
      • Positron Emission Tomography
      • Future Direction and Expert Opinion
  • Part II. The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative Disorders
    • Chapter 4. Alzheimer’s Disease
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Cerebral Cortex Pattern of Alzheimer’s Disease Progression
      • Imaging Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology
      • Alzheimer’s Disease Therapeutics
      • Future Directions
    • Chapter 5. Vascular Dementia
      • Introduction: The Challenge of Vascular Dementia
      • Risk Factors for Vascular Cognitive Impairment
      • Cortical Vascular Lesions Often Associated with Dementia
      • Vascular Alterations Leading to Cerebral Damage
      • Cerebral Lesions Resulting From Vascular Mechanisms
      • Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia
      • Potential Mechanisms of Interaction Between Vascular Conditions and Dementia
      • Experimental Models of Vascular Dementia
      • Prevention and Treatment
    • Chapter 6. Frontotemporal Dementia
      • Introduction
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Imaging Studies of Frontotemporal Dementia
      • Frontotemporal Dementia Genetics
      • Experimental Models
      • Therapeutic Approaches
      • Future Directions
    • Chapter 7. Parkinson’s Disease and the Cerebral Cortex
      • Introduction
      • Pathophysiology of Parkinson’s Disease
      • Animal Models of Parkinson’s Disease
      • Tremors and the Cerebral Cortex
      • Akinesia and Bradykinesia and the Cerebral Cortex
      • Cognitive Impairment and the Cerebral Cortex
      • Neurotransmitters and Gene Expression in the Cortex
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 8. Huntington Disease
      • Introduction
      • Clinical Features and Symptoms of Huntington Disease
      • Cerebral Cortex in Huntington Disease: Postmortem Studies
      • Cerebral Cortex in Huntington Disease: Brain Imaging Findings
      • Cerebral Cortex and Symptom Heterogeneity From Human Studies
      • Dysfunctional Corticostriatal Network in Huntington Disease Animal Models
      • Huntington Disease Pathogenesis: Mechanisms and Pathways in Relation to Cortex
      • Therapeutic Aspects and Future Directions
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 9. Cortical Manifestations in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
      • Background
      • Neuropsychological Manifestations of Frontotemporal Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
      • Molecular, Clinical, and Neuropathological Correlates of Frontotemporal Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
      • Neuroimaging Correlates of Impaired Neural Network Function as the Basis of Frontotemporal Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
      • Models of Neuropsychological Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
      • Therapeutic Strategies
      • Conclusions and Future Directions
    • Chapter 10. Cortical Involvement in Multiple Sclerosis
      • Introduction
      • Relevance of Cortical Pathology to Multiple Sclerosis
      • Cortical Studies in Human Multiple Sclerosis
      • In Vivo Models of Multiple Sclerosis Cortical Pathology
      • In Vitro Studies Relevant to Cortical Pathology
      • Cortical Pathology and Therapeutics
      • Future Perspectives
  • Part III. The Cerebral Cortex in Neuropsychiatric Disorders
    • Chapter 11. Prefrontal Cortical Abnormalities in Cognitive Deficits of Schizophrenia
      • Introduction
      • Cognitive Deficits Represent Core Symptoms of Schizophrenia
      • The Prefrontal Cortex: A Nodal Point Mediating Cognitive Deficits
      • Abnormalities Involve Both Pyramidal and Nonpyramidal Neurons
      • Pyramidal Neuronal Abnormalities May Lower Their Excitability
      • γ-Aminobutyric Acid Neuronal Changes Reduce Inhibitory Tone in the PFC
      • Preclinical Animal Models of Schizophrenia With Prefrontal Cortex Abnormalities
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 12. Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Addictive Disorders
      • Introduction
      • Clinical Evidence for Prefrontal Cortical Pathology in Addiction
      • Effects of Acute Drug Exposure and Drug-Related Cue Exposure on Human Prefrontal Cortex Activity Patterns
      • Human Prefrontal Cortex Regulation of Inhibitory Control Mechanisms: Relevance to Addiction
      • The Prefrontal Cortex in Addiction-Related Neural Circuits
      • Modulation of Prefrontal Cortical Neurotransmitter Release by Drugs of Abuse: Evidence From Animal Models
      • Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Addiction-Related Behavioral Phenomena: Evidence From Animal Behavioral Pharmacology Research
      • Neurochemical Control of Drug-Related Reward Processing in the Prefrontal Cortex: Role of Dopamine–Glutamate Interactions in Animal Models
      • Cannabinoid Modulation of Drug-Related Reward Processing in the Animal Prefrontal Cortex–Mesolimbic Circuitry
      • Summary
  • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
340
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128019566
Paperback ISBN:
9780128019429

About the Editor

David Cechetto

Dr. David F. Cechetto is a Professor in the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry at the University of Western Ontario. His research interests are in the role of inflammation in cerebral ischemia and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. He has developed animal models for the investigation of the combined effects of Alzheimer’s Disease and cerebral ischemia and other risk factors for vascular cognitive impairment such as diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. He has also developed an agent with potential for the treatment of schizophrenia that targets a new unique class of receptors compared to current antipsychotic therapies. An additional area of research involves the examination of mental stress on cardiovascular reactivity (a risk factor for cardiovascular disease) and the regions of the human brain responsible for varying degrees of reactivity in individuals. He is principal investigator on numerous basic neuroscience studies with clinical implications. He has consulted for companies such as Upjohn, Servier (French), Uriach (Spanish), and Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceuticals.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Western Ontario, Canada

Nina Weishaupt

Dr. Nina Weishaupt trained as a veterinarian before committing her career entirely to research in the neurological sciences. Her PhD thesis work in the field of spinal cord injury at the University of Alberta earned her a Dissertation Fellowship and resulted in a number of published articles. Nina has extensive experience with animal models of neurological conditions, and is currently developing a novel rat model for studying early events in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease at the University of Western Ontario.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Western Ontario, Canada