The Central Nervous System Control of Respiration - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444632746, 9780444632760

The Central Nervous System Control of Respiration, Volume 209

1st Edition

Serial Volume Editors: Gert Holstege Caroline M. Beers Hari H. Subramanian
eBook ISBN: 9780444632760
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444632746
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st May 2014
Page Count: 440
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Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Rhythmic Bursting in the Pre-Bötzinger Complex: Mechanisms and Models
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Methods
    • 3 Results
    • 4 Discussion
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 2: Effects of Glycinergic Inhibition Failure on Respiratory Rhythm and Pattern Generation
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Materials and Methods
    • 3 Results
    • 4 Discussion
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 3: Morphological Characterization of Respiratory Neurons in the Pre-Bötzinger Complex
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Materials and Methods
    • 3 Results
    • 4 Discussion
    • 5 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 4: Cytoarchitecture and CO2 Sensitivity of Phox2b-Positive Parafacial Neurons in the Newborn Rat Medulla
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Distribution of pFRG/Pre-I Neurons and Phox2b-Expressing Cells
    • 3 CO2 Sensitivity of pFRG/Pre-I Neurons and Their Histological Characteristics
    • 4 Ionic Mechanisms of CO2 Sensitivity
    • 5 Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 5: Contributions of the Pre-Bötzinger Complex and the Kölliker-Fuse Nuclei to Respiratory Rhythm and Pattern Generation in Awake and Sleeping Goats
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Experimental Design and Methodology
    • 3 Results
    • 4 Major Conclusions Comparing Data of the Three Studies
    • Acknowledgment
  • Chapter 6: The Integrative Role of the Sigh in Psychology, Physiology, Pathology, and Neurobiology
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Sighs May Signal Changes in Behavioral State
    • 3 Sighs and the Control of Arousal
    • 4 Sighs and Their Implications for SIDS and Other Pathologies
    • 5 Sighs Homeostatically Reset Breathing Variability
    • 6 When Sighs Enhance Breathing Variability and Induce Hyperarousal
    • 7 The Pre-Bötzinger Complex, an Essential Brain Region for the Generation of the Sigh and Eupneic Activity
    • 8 The Concept of Network Reconfiguration
    • 9 How Is Breathing Variability Generated?
    • 10 Eupneic and Sighs are Governed by Distinct Cellular Mechanisms
    • 11 Neuronal Structures and Neuromodulatory Mechanisms Linking Sighs with Anxiety and Arousal
    • 12 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgment
  • Chapter 7: Mechanism of Sympathetic Activation and Blood Pressure Elevation in Humans and Animals Following Acute Intermittent Hypoxia
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 AIH Induces Sympathetic Activation and Blood Pressure Elevation
    • 3 AIH Enhances Arterial Chemoreceptor Reflex
    • 4 Does AIH-Induced Sympathetic LTF Depend on Carotid Chemoreceptors?
    • 5 Does Reduced Baroreflex Function Contribute to Sympathetic Activation Following AIH?
    • 6 Central Mechanisms in AIH-Induced Sympathetic LTF
    • 7 Effects of IH on RAS
    • 8 Conclusion and Perspective
    • Acknowledgment
  • Chapter 8: Effect of Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia on the Reflex Recruitment of the Genioglossus During Airway Obstruction in the Anesthetized Rat
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Methods
    • 3 Data Analysis
    • 4 Results
    • 5 Discussion
    • 6 Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 9: Peptides, Serotonin, and Breathing: The Role of the Raphe in the Control of Respiration
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Metabotropic Neurotransmission
    • 3 The Raphe
    • 4 Projections from the Raphe
    • 5 Neurotransmitters in the Raphe
    • 6 Physiology of Different Parts of the Raphe
    • 7 Neuropeptide Release
  • Chapter 10: Cardiorespiratory Coupling: Common Rhythms in Cardiac, Sympathetic, and Respiratory Activities
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Hypoxic Conditioning, Enhancing, and Diminishing CRC
    • 3 Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 11: Serotonin Neurons and Central Respiratory Chemoreception: Where Are We Now?
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Unraveling the Apparent Contradictions
    • 3 Summary
  • Chapter 12: Bidirectional Plasticity of Pontine Pneumotaxic Postinspiratory Drive: Implication for a Pontomedullary Respiratory Central Pattern Generator
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Pneumotaxic-Vagal Control of Post-I Activity that Facilitates the Inspiratory Off-Switch
    • 3 Role of Pontine Pneumotaxic Mechanism in the Genesis of Post-I Activity
    • 4 Plasticity of Pontine Pneumotaxic Modulation of Post-I Activity Under Vagal and Hypoxic Inputs
    • 5 Post-I Phase-Selectivity of Pontine Pneumotaxic Mechanism
    • 6 Candidate Neural Correlate of the Pontine Pneumotaxic Mechanism
    • 7 Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 13: Sleep–Wake Control of the Upper Airway by Noradrenergic Neurons, with and without Intermittent Hypoxia
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 REM Sleep-Like State in Urethane-Anesthetized Rats
    • 3 NE and Serotonin Provide a Major Endogenous Drive to XII Motoneurons
    • 4 Functional Equivalence Between a Combined Withdrawal of Endogenous NA and Serotonergic Drives and REM Sleep-Related Depression of XII Motoneuronal Activity
    • 5 The Sources of NA Excitatory Input to XII Motoneurons and Their State Dependence
    • 6 NA Control of the Upper Airway Following Exposure to Chronic-Intermittent Hypoxia
    • 7 Conclusions and Future Directions
    • Acknowledgment
  • Chapter 14: Affective Brain Areas and Sleep-Disordered Breathing
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Sleep-Disordered Breathing
    • 3 Injury in Sleep-Disordered Breathing
    • 4 Damage in Affective Areas
    • 5 Rostral Affective, Thermal, and Hormonal Sites
    • 6 Affective Disorders: Depression and Anxiety
    • 7 Axonal Injury
    • 8 Functional Impairment of Central Structures
    • 9 Pons and Medulla
    • 10 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 15: The Neural Control of Human Inspiratory Muscles
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Human Inspiratory Motoneuron Output in Quiet Breathing
    • 3 Neuromechanical Matching of Drive to the Inspiratory Muscles
    • 4 Interaction of Voluntary and Involuntary Drives to Human Inspiratory Motoneurons
    • 5 Evolutionary Considerations
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 16: Convergence of Pattern Generator Outputs on a Common Mechanism of Diaphragm Motor Unit Recruitment
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Central Pattern Generators
    • 3 Ventilatory and Nonventilatory Behaviors
    • 4 Diaphragm Motor Unit Recruitment
    • 5 Classification of Motor Unit Types
    • 6 Modeling Diaphragm Motor Unit Recruitment Across Motor Tasks
    • 7 Frequency Coding of Motor Unit Recruitment
    • 8 Convergence of Pattern Generator Outputs and Motor Unit Recruitment Order
    • 9 Conclusions and Future Directions
    • Acknowledgment
  • Chapter 17: The Peripheral Actions of the Central Neuropeptide Somatostatin on Control of Breathing: Effect on Metabolic Rate and Chemoreflex Responses in Humans
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Materials and Methods
    • 3 Results
    • 4 Discussion
  • Chapter 18: Control of the Lungs via the Human Brain Using Neurosurgery
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Neurosurgery, DBS, and Cardiorespiratory Performance
    • 3 DBS and Autonomic Effects Observed in Clinical Practice
    • 4 Central Autonomic Network
    • 5 Modulation of Physiology by DBS
    • 6 The Higher Respiratory Neural Circuitry
    • 7 The Effect of DBS on Respiratory Rate
    • 8 Autonomic Outflow Influencing Respiratory Airway Calibre
    • 9 The Effect of DBS on Lung Function
    • 10 Potential Translation into Clinical Applications
    • 11 Summary
  • Chapter 19: Where is the Rhythm Generator for Emotional Breathing?
    • Abstract
    • 1 Interaction Between the Brainstem, Limbic System, and Cerebral Cortex in Regulating Respiration
    • 2 Where is the Rhythm Generator for Emotional Breathing?
  • Chapter 20: The Periaqueductal Gray Controls Brainstem Emotional Motor Systems Including Respiration
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Materials and Methods
    • 3 Results
    • 4 Conclusion
  • Index
  • Other volumes in PROGRESS IN BRAIN RESEARCH

Description

Respiration is one of the most basic motor activities crucial for survival of the individual. It is under total control of the central nervous system, which adjusts respiratory depth and frequency depending on the circumstances the individual finds itself. For this reason this volume not only reviews the basic control systems of respiration, located in the caudal brainstem, but also the higher brain regions, that change depth and frequency of respiration. Scientific knowledge of these systems is crucial for understanding the problems in the many patients suffering from respiratory failure.

Key Features

  • This well-established international series examines major areas of basic and clinical research within neuroscience, as well as emerging subfields

Readership

This volume not only provides essential information for neuroscientists involved in respiration research, but also for clinicians treating patients with respiratory problems


Details

No. of pages:
440
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444632760
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444632746

About the Serial Volume Editors

Gert Holstege Serial Volume Editor

Gert Holstege has published many of his most relevant papers in Progress in Brain Research. The first Progress in Brain Research paper appeared in 1982 in which he, together with Hans Kuypers showed the organization of the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord (Holstege and Kuypers, 1982),. In this paper he was the first to demonstrate which pathways controlled respiration by accessing motoneurons innervating the diaphragm, intercostal and abdominal muscles and the pelvic floor. In 1989 he published a paper explaining that the periaqueductal gray (PAG) produced vocalization by means of its projection to the nucleus retroambiguus, which, in turn, projects to respiration related motoneurons (Holstege, 1989). This system also produces sound production in humans. In a Progress in Brain Research paper of 1991 Holstege, for the first time, showed that respiration is similarly organized as other specific control systems as blood pressure, heart frequency, micturition and mating control systems (Holstege, 1991). In a Progress in Brain Research Volume chapter in 1996, Holstege, together with Bandler and Saper brought all these motor systems together with their midbrain and higher level control systems in the concept of the Emotional Motor System (Holstege et al., 1996).

Studies using PET-scanning demonstrated that the micturition control system in humans was almost identical to that in cats (Blok et al., 1997). It explained also the reason why so many elderly suffer from overactive bladder and urge-incontinence. This problem, one of the most costly in healthcare in general, is caused by the many small infarctions in the white matter of the prefrontal cortex interrupting the connections between the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the PAG as the central micturition control system.

Since in the cat also the hardware of sexual behavior has been detected, Holstege and co-workers also investigated the brain function during sexual activities in humans, which revealed that the same centers in the pontine reticular formation controlled ejaculation and female orgasm, again similar to the cat control systems (Huynh et al., 2013).

In simple terms the brainstem runs all the basic motor systems via specific projections to the motoneurons in the spinal cord that execute the motor act, not only respiration, but also heart rate, blood pressure, micturition, defecation, and sexual activities. In all likelihood, parturition in women will also be under control of these systems (Holstege, 2014).

Blok, B. F., Willemsen, A. T. and Holstege, G. (1997). A pet study on brain control of micturition in humans. Brain 120 ( Pt 1), 111-121. Holstege, G. (1989). Anatomical study of the final common pathway for vocalization in the cat. J Comp Neurol 284, 242-252. Holstege, G. (1991). Descending motor pathways and the spinal motor system: Limbic and non-limbic components. Prog Brain Res 87, 307-421. Holstege, G. (2014). The periaqueductal gray controls brainstem emotional motor systems including respiration. Progress in Brain Research in press. Holstege, G. and Kuypers, H. G. (1982). The anatomy of brain stem pathways to the spinal cord in cat. A labeled amino acid tracing study. Prog Brain Res 57, 145-175. Holstege, G., Bandler, R. and Saper, C. B. (1996). The emotional motor system. Prog Brain Res 107, 3-6. Huynh, H. K., Willemsen, A., Lovick, T. A. and Holstege, G. (2013). Pontine control of ejaculation and female orgasm. J. Sex. Med. in press.

Affiliations and Expertise

University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

Caroline M. Beers Serial Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

Hari H. Subramanian Serial Volume Editor

Dr. Subramanian holds a PhD in systems neuroscience and holds a Senior Research Fellowship at the University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research (UQCCR), Asia-Pacific Centre for Neuromodulation (APCN); he is also an affiliate at the Queensland Brain Institute (QBI), a teaching intern at the School of Biomedical Sciences, and an honorary senior research associate at the University of Sydney. His research focuses on the systems neurophysiology of autonomic control and treatment of neurogenic autonomic disorders via neuromodulation of brainstem circuits and his discoveries have been critical for establishing the periaqueductal gray as the “emotional controller” of the autonomic nervous system. He is editor of two volumes of the series Progress in Brain Research and the author of more than fifty articles and papers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Research Fellow, Centre for Clinical Research, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Australia