The Cell Biology of Fertilization - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126225907, 9780323150873

The Cell Biology of Fertilization

1st Edition

Editors: Heide Schatten
eBook ISBN: 9780323150873
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th March 1989
Page Count: 424
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Description

The Cell Biology of Fertilization provides an introduction to the various aspects of fertilization in several species, including nematodes, insects, ascidians, clams, sea urchins, rats, hamsters, cows, pigs, sheep, and humans. This text discusses the experimental approaches using methods of biophysics, biochemistry, enzymology, immunology, cell biology, and molecular biology. This book is comprised of three parts encompassing 15 chapters. Part I explores the ability of egg factors to affect sperm motility and initiate the acrosome reaction by modifying ion movements across the sperm plasma membrane. Part II considers the aspects of egg architecture, ranging from extracellular remodelling to nuclei organization, which is involved in embryogenesis and fertilization. Part III provides an overview of gene expression, oncogenes, and nuclear determination during embryogenesis and at fertilization. Cell biologists, developmental biologists, molecular biologists, geneticists, biophysicists, biochemists, reproductive biologists, scientists, researchers, and students will find this book extremely useful.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

I Sperm Behavior and Motility

1 Ionic Regulation of the Sea Urchin Sperm Acrosome Reaction and Stimulation by Egg-Derived Peptides

I. Introduction

II. The Acrosome Reaction

III. Increases in pHi and [Ca2+]i by Peptides from Egg Jelly

IV. Summary

References

2 Caltrin and Calcium Regulation of Sperm Activity

I. The Role of Calcium in Capacitation

II. The Discovery of Caltrin

III. Properties and Function of Caltrin

IV. Enhancement of Calcium Transport by Caltrin

V. Experiments with Antibodies to Caltrin

VI. Postulated Role for Caltrin

References

3 Sperm Motility in Nematodes: Crawling Movement without Actin

I. Introduction

II. Preparation for Motility: Activation of Nematode Sperm

III. Membrane Dynamics and Locomotion

IV. Cytoskeletal Elements in Sperm

V. Toward a Model for Nematode Sperm Motility

References

II Remodeling of Egg Architecture

4 Whole-Mount Analyses of Cytoskeletal Reorganization and Function during Oogenesis and Early Embryogenesis in Xenopus

I. Introduction

II. Cytoskeletal Systems

III. The Cytoplasmic Asymmetry of the Oocyte

IV. The Transformation from Oocyte to Egg

V. Cytoskeletal Dynamics and the Determination of Embryonic Axes

VI. Gastrulation, Neurulation, and Beyond

VII. Cytoskeletal Proteins as Markers of Differentiation

VIII. Conclusions

References

5 Egg Cortical Architecture

I. Architecture of the Egg Cortex

II. Cortical Granule Reaction

III. Membrane Changes at Fertilization

IV. Integration of the Sperm and Egg Plasma Membrane

V. Fertilization Cone Formation

VI. Microvillar Elongation

VII. Endocytosis

References

6 Cytoplasmic Mictrotubule-Associated Motors

I. Introduction

II. Preparation of Sea Urchin Egg Microtubules

III. Sea Urchin Egg Microtubule-Associated ATPase Activity

IV. Sea Urchin Egg HMr3

V. "Soluble" Sea Urchin Egg Cytoplasmic Dynein

VI. Sea Urchin Egg Kinesin

VII. A Microtubule-Associated Motor from C. elegans

VIII. Concluding Remarks

References

7 The Fine Structure of the Formation of Mitotic Poles in Fertilized Eggs

I. Introduction

II. The Centrosome: Structure and Function

III. The First Bipolarization in the Fertilized Egg

IV. The Centrosomal Cycle in the Mitotic Cycle

References

8 Intermediate Filaments during Fertilization and Early Embryogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Structure and Function of Intermediate Filaments

III. Intermediate Filament Proteins in Spermatozoa

IV. Expression of Intermediate Filament Proteins in Early Embryonic Development of Vertebrates

V. Intermediate Filaments in Invertebrates

VI. The Cytoskeleton in Drosophila and Other Dipteran Embryos

VII. Conclusion

References

9 Nuclear Architectural Changes during Fertilization and Development

I. Introduction: The Karyoskeleton and Its Dynamic Nature

II. Nuclear Lamins

III. Kinetochores, the Nuclear Matrix, and Other Karyoskeletal Components

IV. Future Research

References

10 Extracellular Remodeling during Fertilization

I. Introduction

II. Specific Systems of Egg Coat Modification

III. Mechanism of Extracellular Remodeling during Fertilization

References

11 Dispermic Human Fertilization: Violation of Expected Cell Behavior

I. The Fertilization Process in Humans

II. Dispermic Fertilization in Animals and Humans

III. Future Research Directions

IV. Conclusions

References

III Ionic Regulation and Its Controls

12 G-Proteins and the Regulation of Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization

I. Introduction

II. Oocyte Maturation

III. Sperm Activation

IV. Egg Activation

V. Unanswered Questions

References

13 The Relaxation State of Water in Unfertilized and Fertilized Sea Urchin Eggs

I. Introduction

II. Sea Urchin Studies

References

14 Calcium and Mitosis: A Mythos?

I. Microtubules are Sensitive to Calcium

II. From Calcium to Calmodulin to Microtubules

III. Effects of Ca Ions on Mitotic Spindles In Vivo and In Vitro

IV. Calcium Changes at Mitosis

V. Calcium in the Mitotic Apparatus

VI. Ca-Sequestering Membranes in the Mitotic Apparatus

VII. Calcium Release by Inositol Polyphosphates

VIII. Functional Analysis of the Calcium Transport System

IX. Summary and Outlook

References

15 Arousal of Activity in Sea Urchin Eggs at Fertilization

I. Introduction

II. Signal Transduction Mechanisms

III. Strategies for Studying Egg Activation

IV. Experimental Analysis of Egg Activation

V. Summary and Overview

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
424
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1989
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323150873

About the Editor

Heide Schatten

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