The Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444528766, 9780080476209

The Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology

1st Edition

Editors: Steven Laureys
eBook ISBN: 9780080476209
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 9th June 2006
Page Count: 632
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Description

Consciousness is one of the most significant scientific problems today. Renewed interest in the nature of consciousness - a phenomenon long considered not to be scientifically explorable, as well as increasingly widespread availability of multimodal functional brain imaging techniques (EEG, ERP, MEG, fMRI and PET), now offer the possibility of detailed, integrated exploration of the neural, behavioral, and computational correlates of consciousness. The present volume aims to confront the latest theoretical insights in the scientific study of human consciousness with the most recent behavioral, neuroimaging, electrophysiological, pharmacological and neuropathological data on brain function in altered states of consciousness such as: brain death, coma, vegetative state, minimally conscious state, locked-in syndrome, dementia, epilepsy, schizophrenia, hysteria, general anesthesia, sleep, hypnosis, and hallucinations. The interest of this is threefold. First, patients with altered states of consciousness continue to represent a major clinical problem in terms of clinical assessment of consciousness and daily management. Second, the exploration of brain function in altered states of consciousness represents a unique lesional approach to the scientific study of consciousness and adds to the worldwide effort to identify the "neural correlate of consciousness". Third, new scientific insights in this field have major ethical and social implications regarding our care for these patients.

Readership

Neurologists, neuroscientists, psychologists, pharmacologists, and physiologists.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

Foreword

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1: What in the world is consciousness?

Abstract

Introduction

Wakefulness versus awareness

Consciousness versus self-consciousness

Consciousness narrow versus consciousness broad

Consciousness inner versus consciousness outer

Hard versus easy questions of consciousness

Conclusion

Chapter 2: A neuroscientific approach to consciousness

Abstract

Introduction

The neuroscience portfolio: brain imaging

The neuroscience portfolio: beyond imaging

A paradigm for evaluating neuronal assemblies as indices of depth of consciousness: pain

Conclusions

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

Chapter 3: Functional neuroimaging during altered states of consciousness: how and what do we measure?

Abstract

Lesions, deficits, and historical milestones leading to the neurobiology of cognition

Neuroimaging of individual brains: identification of functionally specialized cortical areas

Considerations that differentiate single subject mapping from group investigations

Neuroimaging of cortical areas specialized for highlevel cognitive tasks

Neuroimaging and deficits of consciousness

Chapter 4: Global workspace theory of consciousness: toward a cognitive neuroscience of human experience

Abstract

Introduction

The global access hypothesis

A theater metaphor and brain hypotheses

Sensory consciousness as a test case

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

Chapter 5: Skill, corporality and alerting capacity in an account of sensory consciousness

Abstract

Introduction

Sensation as a skill: explaining intra- and intermodal sensory differences

Corporality and alerting capacity: explaining sensory presence

Application 1: intra- and intermodal differences in sensory quality

Application 2: dreaming and mental imagery

Application 3: spatial and temporal completeness of the visual world — “change blindness”

Consciousness

Description or explanation?

Chapter 6: Methods for studying unconscious learning

Abstract

Introduction

Sequence learning as an example of unconscious cognition

Dissociation studies

Verbal reports

Forced-choice tasks

Comparison between direct and indirect tasks

The process dissociation procedure

In search of the neural correlates of conscious and unconscious processes

Concluding remarks

Acknowledgments

Chapter 7: Computational correlates of consciousness

Abstract

Introduction

The functions of consciousness

The search for the CCC

Toward computational principles for the distinction between conscious and unconscious cognition

Forward models

Discussion and conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 8: Machine consciousness

Abstract

Introduction

The conscious machine

A spectrum and a paradigm

Franklin’s intelligent distribution agent system

Consciousness in virtual machines

Cognitive neural architectures

Attention and consciousness

At the physicalist end of the spectrum

A depictive model

The emerging paradigm

Future prospects

Chapter 9: Consciousness, information integration, and the brain

Abstract

Neuroscience and consciousness: facts and challenges

Comparisons and conclusions

Chapter 10: Dynamics of thalamo-cortical network oscillations and human perception

Abstract

Gamma-band oscillations and cognitive processing

Neuronal substrates of human gamma band activity

Network dynamics and sensory perception

Network dysrhythmia in neurology and psychiatry

Fracture of thalamo-cortical networks during unconsciousness

Summary: interaction and dynamics of large-scale network oscillations in the normal and pathological brain

Acknowledgments

Chapter 11: From synchronous neuronal discharges to subjective awareness?

Abstract

Introduction

Acknowledgements

Chapter 12: Genes and experience shape brain networks of conscious control

Abstract

Anatomical network

Self-regulation

Development of self-regulation

Sensory awareness

Focal awareness

Acknowledgment

Chapter 13: Visual phenomenal consciousness: a neurological guided tour

Abstract

Introduction

Blindsight: highlighting the role of visual cortex

Visual form agnosia, optic ataxia and visual hallucinations: the key role of the ventral pathway

Unilateral spatial neglect: the necessity of attentional allocation

Source and effects of top-down attentional effects: attention is not consciousness

Four principles accounted by a theoretical sketch of consciousness

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

Chapter 14: The mental self

Abstract

Meditation and the medial core of consciousness

The medial core and self-representation

Chapter 15: Posterior cingulate, precuneal and retrosplenial cortices: cytology and components of the neural network correlates of consciousness

Abstract

Introduction

Anatomical overview of posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneal cortex

Epilepsy, stroke and vegetative state

Cerebral metabolism

Anteroventral thalamic link between conscious wakefulness and cognitive awareness

Sleep

Anesthetic sensitivity

Self reflection and complex information processing

Anatomical relationships between mental and conscious information processing

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

Chapter 16: Human cognition during REM sleep and the activity profile within frontal and parietal cortices: a reappraisal of functional neuroimaging data

Abstract

Introduction

Meta-analysis of PET data during human sleep

Lateral prefrontal cortex and executive functions

Lateral prefrontal cortex and episodic memory

The ventral parieto-frontal system of attention

The frontal and parietal areas and mind representation during REM sleep

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 17: General anesthesia and the neural correlates of consciousness

Abstract

Consciousness as the dependent variable

The anesthetic approach to the consciousness problem

The definitive anesthetic study versus reality

Neuroimaging studies of anesthesia in humans

The basis for the original observation of anesthetic effects on the thalamus

Recent anesthesia studies continue to demonstrate the thalamic effect

Is consciousness in the parietal cortex?

Network activity, anesthetic-induced signal suppression or signal scrambling?

The dose-dependent effects of anesthetics, keys to future study

Conclusions

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

Chapter 18: Brain imaging in research on anesthetic mechanisms: studies with propofol

Abstract

Introduction

Anesthetic drugs and the CNS: target sites

Neural correlates of concentration-dependent effects: tactile transmission

Neural correlates of concentration-dependent effects: pain processing

PET and neurotransmission during anesthesia: cholinergic muscarinic processes

Conclusion

Chapter 19: The cognitive modulation of pain: hypnosis- and placebo-induced analgesia

Abstract

Introduction

Hypnosis

Placebo

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

Chapter 20: Consciousness and epilepsy: why are patients with absence seizures absent?

Abstract

Introduction

Epilepsy models for studying impaired consciousness

Electrophysiology

Behavior

Neuroimaging and molecular mapping

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 21: Two aspects of impaired consciousness in Alzheimer’s disease

Abstract

Introduction

Controlled and automatic processes in AD

Anosognosia in AD

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

Chapter 22: Functional brain imaging of symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia

Abstract

Introduction

Methodological and conceptual background

Correlates of psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenia

Neuropsychological and emotional deficits

Connectivity

Conclusion

Chapter 23: Hysterical conversion and brain function

Abstract

Introduction

Incidence and evolution

Body, mind, and brain diseases

History and theories

Electrophysiological correlates of conversion disorders

Hemodynamic brain imaging

More questions and new directions

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 24: The out-of body experience: precipitating factors and neural correlates

Abstract

Introduction

Neurology

Psychiatry

Body position

Sleep

Drugs

General anesthesia

Cognitive neuroscience of OBE and self

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 25: Near-death experiences in cardiac arrest survivors

Abstract

Introduction

Theoretical approaches to NDEs

Studies of NDEs in cardiac arrest patients

Chapter 26: The concept and practice of brain death

Abstract

Introduction

History

The concept of death

The definition and criterion of death

The tests of death

Brain death determination in practice

Religious views

Organ donation

Chapter 27: The minimally conscious state: defining the borders of consciousness

Abstract

The problem of consciousness

Rationale for defining the minimally conscious state

Definition and diagnostic criteria

Incidence and prevalence

Pathophysiology and residual brain function

Prognosis and outcome

Life expectancy

Specialized neurobehavioral assessment methods

Case study

Directions for future research

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 28: Behavioral evaluation of consciousness in severe brain damage

Abstract

Introduction

Clinical evaluation of consciousness

Consciousness scales

Conclusions

Chapter 29: Evoked potentials in severe brain injury

Abstract

Introduction

Basics of EEG and EPs

Pathophysiological considerations

EPs at the acute stage of severe head trauma

Final remarks

Conclusions

Chapter 30: Event-related potential measures of consciousness: two equations with three unknowns

Abstract

Non-REM sleep

REM sleep

Anesthesia

Coma and vegetative state

Neglect

Subthreshold, weak, and brief stimuli in normal subjects

Masked stimuli in normal subjects

Conclusion

Abbreviations

Acknowledgment

Chapter 31: Novel aspects of the neuropathology of the vegetative state after blunt head injury

Abstract

Introduction

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion

Chapter 32: Using a hierarchical approach to investigate residual auditory cognition in persistent vegetative state

Abstract

Introduction

Acoustic processing

Perceptual processing

Phonological processing

Semantic processing

Discussion and conclusions

Chapter 33: Modeling the minimally conscious state: measurements of brain function and therapeutic possibilities

Abstract

Introduction

Nosology

Models of the vegetative state

Models of MCS

Possible therapeutic strategies

Implications and research directions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 34: The locked-in syndrome : what is it like to be conscious but paralyzed and voiceless?

Abstract

Classical, incomplete and total locked-in syndrome

Etiology

Misdiagnosis

Survival and mortality

Prognosis and outcome

Communication

Residual brain function

Quality of life

The right to die or the right to live?

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

Chapter 35: Brain-computer interfaces — the key for the conscious brain locked into a paralyzed body

Abstract

Introduction

The locked-in syndrome

A generic brain–computer interface system

Regulation of brain responses for BCI control

Invasive recording

BCIs based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Shortcomings and future of BCI research and development

Acknowledgments

Chapter 36: Neural plasticity and recovery of function

Abstract

Introduction

Plasticity in the damaged brain

Cerebral reorganization in chronic stroke patients

The relationship between sensory and motor function after stroke

Adaptation within the motor system

The evolution of cerebral reorganization after stroke

Driving functional reorganization

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 37: Thirty years of the vegetative state: clinical, ethical and legal problems

Abstract

Introduction

Frequency of occurrence

Causes and pathology

Diagnosis

Prognosis for recovery and survival

Attitudes to the permanent vegetative state

Ethical issues

Legal issues

Chapter 38: Assessing health-related quality of life after severe brain damage: potentials and limitations

Abstract

Introduction

Health-related quality of life research

HRQoL assessment

HRQoL research in severe traumatic brain injuries

Challenges of measuring HRQoL in TBI

Conclusions

Chapter 39: Outcome and ethics in severe brain damage

Abstract

Introduction

Definitions

Intensive care unit decisions

The decision-makers

Practicalities

Conclusion

Chapter 40: Clinical pragmatism and the care of brain damaged patients: toward a palliative neuroethics for disorders of consciousness

Abstract

Introduction

John Dewey and clinical pragmatism

Clinical pragmatism and disorders of consciousness

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
632
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 2006
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780080476209

About the Editor

Steven Laureys

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Liege, Belgium

Reviews

"Laureys and contributors have taken up the task to link biocognitive theories, functional neuroimaging, and clinial descriptions of known comatose states, and the result is impressive. The authors have mined this complex and disputatious field and its entire consolidated work is very readable." --FOREWORD by Eelco F.M. Wijdicks, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, U.S.A. "The distinguished panel of philosophers, modelers, psychologists, physicians, and neuroscientists assembled here provides an accessible, yet in-depth perspective on many of those fields of research. Rarely has such a diversity of points of view been made available in a single volume. Browsing through them provides an exciting window into the forefront of consciousness research, as well as the associated philosophical, ethical and clinical issues." --FOREWORD by Stanislas Dehaene, President-elect of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness