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The Biology of Frankia and Actinorhizal Plants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126332100, 9780323150866

The Biology of Frankia and Actinorhizal Plants

1st Edition

Author: Christa R. Schwintzer
eBook ISBN: 9780323150866
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th May 1990
Page Count: 426
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The Biology of Frankia and Actinorhizal Plants provides a comprehensive review of Frankia and the actinorhizal plants. It reviews the state of knowledge on all aspects from molecular genetics through ecology to practical applications; describes methods used in research and practical applications; and is a guide to the literature.
The book begins with overviews of Frankia and the actinorhizal plants, and developments in the field prior to the first confirmed isolation of Frankia. Next is a series of authoritative chapters on the biology of Frankia, the symbiosis, and actinorhizal plants. Although methods used in research and in practical applications are included throughout the book, they are given special emphasis in the middle section. The final section of the book concerns the ecology and current and potential uses of actinorhizal plants in both the temperate regions and the tropics.
This work is intended as a reference text and handbook of methods for a wide audience including established workers and students of Frankia and actinorhizal plants, specialists and students in other areas of nitrogen fixation (including the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis), soil microbiologists, plant physiologists, ecologists, general biologists, foresters, specialists in land reclamation, and managers requiring an authoritative overview of this rapidly developing field.

Table of Contents




1. Introduction

I. Frankiae

II. Actinorhizal Root Nodule Symbioses

III. Distribution of Actinorhizal Plants

IV. Practical Uses of Actinorhizal Plants


2. Discoveries, Discussions, and Trends in Research on Actinorhizal Root Nodule Symbioses before 1978

I. The Classical Period until the End of the Nineteenth Century

II. The Intermediary Period from the Beginning of the Twentieth Century until 1950

III. The Modern Period from 1950 to 1978


3. Systematics, Isolation, and Culture of Frankia

I. Systematics

II. Isolation of Frankia

III. Culture of Frankia


4. The Infection Process and Nodule Development

I. Infection Process

II. Nodule Development

III. Regulation of Infection and Nodule Development

IV. Summary


5. Cross-Inoculation Groups within Frankia and Host-Endosymbiont Associations

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Testing Host-Microsymbiont Associations

III. Evidence Concerning Host Specificity of Frankia Strains and the Phenomenon of Cross-Inoculation Infectivity


6. Physiology and Biochemistry of Frankia in Culture

I. Introduction

II. General Cultural Characteristics

III. Carbon Metabolism of Frankia in Culture

IV. Nitrogen Metabolism

V. Protection of Nitrogenase from Oxygen in Culture

VI. Conclusions


7. The Physiology of Actinorhizal Nodules

I. Introduction

II. Nodule Dormancy

III. Carbon Metabolism

IV. Nitrogen Metabolism

V. Hydrogen Metabolism

VI. Host-Microsymbiont Interactions

VII. Concluding Remarks


8. Oxygen Regulation and Hemoglobin

I. Introduction

II. Response of Frankia to Oxygen

III. Plant Growth and Nodule Development in Response to Varying Oxygen

IV. Internal Oxygen Environment in Nodules

V. Oxygen Effects on Nodule Function

VI. Hemoglobins in Actinorhizal Nodules

VII. Conclusions


9. Spore-Positive and Spore-Negative Nodules

I. Factors Determining Nodule Spore Type

II. Location of Spores within Nodules and Timing of Spore Development

III. Methods of Determining Nodule Spore Type

IV. Physiology of Sp+ and Sp- Nodules

V. Ecological Distribution of Sp+ and Sp- Nodules


10. The Molecular Genetics of Frankia

I. Frankia as an Actinomycete

II. Frankia as a Symbiont

III. Approaches to Studying Frankia Genetics

IV. Concluding Remarks


11. Micropropagation, Tissue Culture, and Genetic Transformation of Actinorhizal Plants and Betula

I. Vegetative Propagation

II. Genetic Transformation Systems for Betulaceae

III. Applications of in Vitro Techniques


12. The Genetics of Actinorhizal Betulaceae

I. Introduction

II. Diversity among Actinorhizal Plants

III. A Model Host Group for the Temperate Regions

IV. The Potential of Studies at the DNA Level


13. Techniques for Measuring Nitrogenase Activity in Frankia and Actinorhizal Plants

I. Nitrogen Balance

II. Isotope Enrichment

III. Isotope Dilution after 15N Enrichment

IV. Natural Abundance Dilution

V. Acetylene Reduction

VI. Hydrogen Analysis

VII. Limitations and Problems Common to All Methods

VIII. Conclusions


14. Methods for Production and Use of Actinorhizal Plants in Forestry, Low Maintenance Landscapes, and Revegetation

I. Considerations of Site Use and Planting Goals

II. Propagation of Actinorhizal Plants

III. Approaches to Establishing Actinorhizal Symbioses

IV. Outplanting and Follow-up

V. Conclusion


15. Interactions among Actinorhizal and Associated Plant Species

I. Complementary Interactions

II. Competitive Interactions

III. Conclusions


16. Current and Potential Uses and Management of Casuarinaceae in the Tropics and Subtropics

I. Introduction

II. Current and Potential Uses of Casuarinaceae

III. Root Symbioses in Casuarinaceae

IV. Plant Selection and Breeding for Increased N2 Fixation

V. Management Practices


17. Actinorhizal Plants in Pacific Northwest Forests

I. Introduction

II. Soil Building/Fertility

III. Use in Forest Production

IV. Utilization of Red Alder

V. Long-Term Productivity

VI. Nontimber Values

VII. Summary


18. Current and Potential Uses of Actinorhizal Plants in Europe

I. Introduction

II. European Actinorhizal Species

III. Utilization for Land Management and Forestry

IV. Commercial Products

V. Future Prospects




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© Academic Press 1990
28th May 1990
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

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Christa R. Schwintzer

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