The Biology of Frankia and Actinorhizal Plants

The Biology of Frankia and Actinorhizal Plants

1st Edition - May 28, 1990

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  • Author: Christa R. Schwintzer
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323150866

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The Biology of Frankia and Actinorhizal Plants provides a comprehensive review of Frankia and the actinorhizal plants. It reviews the state of knowledge on all aspects from molecular genetics through ecology to practical applications; describes methods used in research and practical applications; and is a guide to the literature. The book begins with overviews of Frankia and the actinorhizal plants, and developments in the field prior to the first confirmed isolation of Frankia. Next is a series of authoritative chapters on the biology of Frankia, the symbiosis, and actinorhizal plants. Although methods used in research and in practical applications are included throughout the book, they are given special emphasis in the middle section. The final section of the book concerns the ecology and current and potential uses of actinorhizal plants in both the temperate regions and the tropics. This work is intended as a reference text and handbook of methods for a wide audience including established workers and students of Frankia and actinorhizal plants, specialists and students in other areas of nitrogen fixation (including the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis), soil microbiologists, plant physiologists, ecologists, general biologists, foresters, specialists in land reclamation, and managers requiring an authoritative overview of this rapidly developing field.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication



    1. Introduction

    I. Frankiae

    II. Actinorhizal Root Nodule Symbioses

    III. Distribution of Actinorhizal Plants

    IV. Practical Uses of Actinorhizal Plants


    2. Discoveries, Discussions, and Trends in Research on Actinorhizal Root Nodule Symbioses before 1978

    I. The Classical Period until the End of the Nineteenth Century

    II. The Intermediary Period from the Beginning of the Twentieth Century until 1950

    III. The Modern Period from 1950 to 1978


    3. Systematics, Isolation, and Culture of Frankia

    I. Systematics

    II. Isolation of Frankia

    III. Culture of Frankia


    4. The Infection Process and Nodule Development

    I. Infection Process

    II. Nodule Development

    III. Regulation of Infection and Nodule Development

    IV. Summary


    5. Cross-Inoculation Groups within Frankia and Host-Endosymbiont Associations

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods of Testing Host-Microsymbiont Associations

    III. Evidence Concerning Host Specificity of Frankia Strains and the Phenomenon of Cross-Inoculation Infectivity


    6. Physiology and Biochemistry of Frankia in Culture

    I. Introduction

    II. General Cultural Characteristics

    III. Carbon Metabolism of Frankia in Culture

    IV. Nitrogen Metabolism

    V. Protection of Nitrogenase from Oxygen in Culture

    VI. Conclusions


    7. The Physiology of Actinorhizal Nodules

    I. Introduction

    II. Nodule Dormancy

    III. Carbon Metabolism

    IV. Nitrogen Metabolism

    V. Hydrogen Metabolism

    VI. Host-Microsymbiont Interactions

    VII. Concluding Remarks


    8. Oxygen Regulation and Hemoglobin

    I. Introduction

    II. Response of Frankia to Oxygen

    III. Plant Growth and Nodule Development in Response to Varying Oxygen

    IV. Internal Oxygen Environment in Nodules

    V. Oxygen Effects on Nodule Function

    VI. Hemoglobins in Actinorhizal Nodules

    VII. Conclusions


    9. Spore-Positive and Spore-Negative Nodules

    I. Factors Determining Nodule Spore Type

    II. Location of Spores within Nodules and Timing of Spore Development

    III. Methods of Determining Nodule Spore Type

    IV. Physiology of Sp+ and Sp- Nodules

    V. Ecological Distribution of Sp+ and Sp- Nodules


    10. The Molecular Genetics of Frankia

    I. Frankia as an Actinomycete

    II. Frankia as a Symbiont

    III. Approaches to Studying Frankia Genetics

    IV. Concluding Remarks


    11. Micropropagation, Tissue Culture, and Genetic Transformation of Actinorhizal Plants and Betula

    I. Vegetative Propagation

    II. Genetic Transformation Systems for Betulaceae

    III. Applications of in Vitro Techniques


    12. The Genetics of Actinorhizal Betulaceae

    I. Introduction

    II. Diversity among Actinorhizal Plants

    III. A Model Host Group for the Temperate Regions

    IV. The Potential of Studies at the DNA Level


    13. Techniques for Measuring Nitrogenase Activity in Frankia and Actinorhizal Plants

    I. Nitrogen Balance

    II. Isotope Enrichment

    III. Isotope Dilution after 15N Enrichment

    IV. Natural Abundance Dilution

    V. Acetylene Reduction

    VI. Hydrogen Analysis

    VII. Limitations and Problems Common to All Methods

    VIII. Conclusions


    14. Methods for Production and Use of Actinorhizal Plants in Forestry, Low Maintenance Landscapes, and Revegetation

    I. Considerations of Site Use and Planting Goals

    II. Propagation of Actinorhizal Plants

    III. Approaches to Establishing Actinorhizal Symbioses

    IV. Outplanting and Follow-up

    V. Conclusion


    15. Interactions among Actinorhizal and Associated Plant Species

    I. Complementary Interactions

    II. Competitive Interactions

    III. Conclusions


    16. Current and Potential Uses and Management of Casuarinaceae in the Tropics and Subtropics

    I. Introduction

    II. Current and Potential Uses of Casuarinaceae

    III. Root Symbioses in Casuarinaceae

    IV. Plant Selection and Breeding for Increased N2 Fixation

    V. Management Practices


    17. Actinorhizal Plants in Pacific Northwest Forests

    I. Introduction

    II. Soil Building/Fertility

    III. Use in Forest Production

    IV. Utilization of Red Alder

    V. Long-Term Productivity

    VI. Nontimber Values

    VII. Summary


    18. Current and Potential Uses of Actinorhizal Plants in Europe

    I. Introduction

    II. European Actinorhizal Species

    III. Utilization for Land Management and Forestry

    IV. Commercial Products

    V. Future Prospects



Product details

  • No. of pages: 426
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1990
  • Published: May 28, 1990
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323150866

About the Author

Christa R. Schwintzer

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