The Biology of B-Lactam Antibiotics

The Biology of B-Lactam Antibiotics

1st Edition - August 28, 1982

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  • Editors: Robert B. Morin, Marvin Gorman
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483276694

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Description

The Biology of ß-Lactam Antibiotics

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    Contents of Other Volumes

    I. The Biosynthesis of β-Lactam Antibiotics

    I. Introduction

    II. Steps Common to Biosynthesis of Penicillins, Cephalosporins, and 7α-Methoxycephalosporins

    III. The Enzymatic Conversion of IsopeniciUin N to Penicillium-Type Penicillins

    IV. Mechanism of Penicillin G Excretion

    V. Biosynthesis of Cephalosporins and 7α-Methoxycephalosporins

    VI. Synthesis of Cephalosporins and 7α-Methoxycephalosporins

    VII. Genes Associated with Conversion of Primary Metabolites to Penam and Ceph-3-em Antibiotics

    VIII. Distribution of Cephalosporins, 7α-Methoxycephalosporins, and Penicillium-Type Penicillins

    IX. New Classes of β-Lactam Antibiotics and Their Biosyntheses

    X. The Relationship of β-Lactam Bond Formation in Penam, Clavam, 1-Carbapen-2-em, and Nocardicin Antibiotics

    XI. The Future: Significant Questions and New Possibilities

    References

    2. β-Lactam-Producing Microorganisms: Their Biology and Fermentation Behavior

    I. Introduction

    II. Genetic Aspects of β-Lactam Synthesis in Strains of Penicillium chrysogenum and Acremonium chrysogenum

    III. Maintenance and Productivity of High-Yielding Strains of P. chrysogenum and A. chrysogenum

    IV. Process Control in the Penicillin and CephalosporinC Fermentations

    V. New β-Lactam Antibiotics from Streptomyces and Nocardia

    VI. Cell-Free Biosynthetic Studies with Protoplasts of P. chrysogenum and A. chrysogenum

    VII. Biochemical Control Mechanisms Affecting β-Lactam Synthesis

    VIII. Applications of the Techniques of Protoplast Fusion and Recombinant DNA to β-Lactam Antibiotics

    References

    3. Physiology, Biochemistry, and Inactivation of β-Lactamases

    I. Introduction

    II. Methodology

    III. The Enzymes

    IV. β-Lactamase Inactivators

    References

    4. β-Lactam Antibiotics: Biochemical Modes of Action

    I. Background

    II. Bacterial Cell Walls

    III. Substrate Analog Hypothesis

    IV. Penicillin-Binding Proteins (PBPs)

    V. Interactions of PBPs with β-Lactams

    VI. Structural Studies of PBPs

    VII. Functions of PBPs in Vivo

    VIII. β-Lactams as Substrate Analogs

    IX. Autolysins and the Mechanism of Bacterial Lysis

    X. β-Lactam Permeability Problems

    XI. Conclusions

    References

    5. β-Lactam Antibiotics in Clinical Medicine

    I. Prolog

    II. The Advent of Penicillin

    III. Semisynthetic Penicillin Derivatives of the 1960s and 1970s

    IV. Cephalosporins: A New Class of β-Lactams

    V. New Cephalosporins

    VI. Third-Generation Parenteral Penicillins

    VII. Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins

    VIII. Unique New β-Lactams

    IX. Guidance from the Past: Perspectives for the 1980s

    References

    6. The Relationship between Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis and Bacterial Lethality

    I. Introduction

    II. The Secondary Consequences of Inhibition of Cell Wall Assembly

    III. Events that Accompany β-Lactam Inhibition of Peptidoglycan Aβembly in Highly Tolerant Bacteria

    IV. Regulation of Endogenous Peptidoglycan Hydrolases

    V. Other Reported Secondary Consequences of Inhibition of Peptidoglycan Assembly

    VI. Cell Surface Growth and Division

    VII. Concluding Remarks

    References

    7. Monobactams

    I. Introduction

    II. Isolation and Structure Determination

    III. Synthesis of Monobactams

    IV. Microbiological Activity of Monobactams

    V. Conclusion

    References

    Appendices

    Appendix A: β-Lactam Antibiotics in Commercial Use or Clinical Investigation

    Appendix B: Introduction of a 7-Methoxyl Group into Penicillins or Cephalosporins

    Appendix C: Total Synthesis of Substituted Azetidinone 2-Carboxylates and Their Utilization

    Appendix D: Cell-Free Biosynthesis of Cephalosporins from Penicillin

    Appendix E: Assays for Penicillin-Binding Proteins (PBPs)

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 434
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: August 28, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483276694

About the Editors

Robert B. Morin

Marvin Gorman

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