The Biology of Animal Viruses - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780122530401, 9781483271880

The Biology of Animal Viruses

2nd Edition

Authors: Frank Fenner B. R. McAuslan C. A. Mims
eBook ISBN: 9781483271880
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1974
Page Count: 850
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Description

The Biology of Animal Viruses, Second Edition deals with animal viruses focusing on molecular biology and tumor virology. The book reviews the nature, chemical composition, structure, and classification of animal viruses. The text also describes the methods of isolating animal viruses, how these are grown in the laboratory, assayed, purified, and used in biochemical experiments. The book also describes the structure and chemistry of many known viruses such as the papovaviridae, herpes virus, poxvirus, coronavirus, or the Bunyamwera supergroup. The book then explains the structure and function of the animal cell including the cytoplasmic organelles, the nucleus, inhibitors of cell function, and viral multiplication. Other papers discuss in detail the multiplication of the DNA and RNA viruses, whose mechanisms of multiplication differ from those of other viruses. Other papers discuss the known prevention and treatment methods of viral diseases, as well as the epidemiology and evolution of viral diseases resulting from human's disturbance of the biosphere and from medical and experimental innovations. The text can prove useful for immunologists, veterinarians, virologists, molecular researchers, students, and academicians in the field of cellular microbiology and virology.

Table of Contents


Preface

Preface to First Edition

Acknowledgments

1 The Nature and Classification of Animal Viruses

Introduction

The Nature of Viruses

The Chemical Composition of Animal Viruses

The Structure of Animal Viruses

Classification and Nomenclature in Biology

Previous Classifications of Viruses

A Classification of Animal Viruses

Short Descriptions of the Major Groups of DNA Viruses

Short Descriptions of the Major Groups of RNA Viruses

Unclassified Viruses

The Origins of Viruses

2 Cultivation, Assay, and Analysis of Viruses

Introduction

Cell Culture

Embryonated Eggs

Laboratory Animals

Assay of Viral Infectivity

Assay of Other Properties of Virions

Purification and Separation of Virions and Their Components

Electron Microscopy of Viruses

Nucleic Acid Hybridization

Examination of an Unknown Virus

Measurement of Antibodies and Antigens

3 The Structure and Chemistry of the Virion: A Systematic Survey

Introduction

Papovaviridae

Adenovirus

Herpesvirus

Iridovirus

Poxvirus

Parvovirus

Picornaviridae

Togaviridae

Orthomyxovirus

Paramyxovirus

Coronavirus

Arenavirus

Bunyamwera Supergroup

Rhabdovirus

Leukovirus

Reovirus

Orbivirus

Unclassified Viruses

General Observations

4 Structure and Function of the Animal Cell

Introduction

Structure of an Undifferentiated Animal Cell

The Cytoplasmic Membrane

Cytoplasmic Organelles

The Nucleus

The Cell Cycle

Molecular Biology of Animal Cells

Inhibitors of Cell Function and Viral Multiplication

5 The Multiplication of DNA Viruses

Introduction

The Multiplication Cycle

The Essential Steps in Multiplication

A Systematic Survey

Parvovirus

Papovaviridae

Adenovirus

Herpesvirus

Iridovirus

Poxvirus

6 The Multiplication of RNA Viruses

Introduction

The Essential Steps in Multiplication

A Systematic Survey

Picornaviridae

Togaviridae

Orthomyxovirus

Paramyxovirus

Coronavirus

Arenavirus

Bunyamwera Supergroup

Rhabdovirus

Leukovirus

Reovirus

Orbivirus

7 Viral Genetics

Introduction

Numbers of Genes in Viruses

Technical Methods

Host-Controlled Modification

Mutation

Kinds of Mutants of Animal Viruses

Interactions between Viruses

Genetic Recombination

Interactions of Viral Nucleic Acid and Cellular DNA

Genetic Reactivation

Host-Cell Reactivation and Photoreactivation

Complementation

Adenoviruses and SV40

Phenotypic Mixing

Heterozygosis and Polyploidy

Mapping by Serial Inactivation and Direct Biochemical Analysis

Adaptation to New Hosts

8 Interference and Interferon

Introduction

Virus-Attachment Interference

Homologous Interference

Heterologous Interference

Interferon-Mediated Interference

Biological Properties of Interferons

Physicochemical Properties of Interferons

Methods of Assay of Interferons

Induction of Interferon

Viruses and Nucleic Acid as Inducers of Interferon

Mechanism of Interferon Action

Enhancement

9 Pathogenesis: The Spread of Viruses through the Body

Introduction

Mechanisms of Cell Damage

Cell Damage in the Infected Animal

Infections of the Skin

Infections of the Respiratory Tract

Infections of the Alimentary Tract

Systemic infections

Generalized Infections with Rashes

Infections of the Nervous System

Congenital Infections

Infections of Lymphoid Tissues

Infections of Miscellaneous Organs

The Incubation Period and Its Significance in Pathogenesis

Virulence at the Level of Organism

10 Pathogenesis: The Immune Response

Introduction

The Immunoglobulins

Complement

Cell-Mediated Immunity

Cells and Tissues Involved in the Immune Response

The Immune Response in Mature Animals

Immunological Tolerance

Immunity in the Fetus and Newborn

The Immune Response to Viral Infection

Neutralization of Viruses by Antibody

Secretory Antibodies on Mucosal Surfaces

Passive Immunity

The Duration of Active Immunity

Changes in the Reactivity of Antibodies after Multiple Infections

Recovery from Viral Infection

The Immune Response as a Cause of Pathological Changes

Immunosuppression by Viruses

Immunological Tolerance in Viral Infection

Immunological Aspects of Infections with Oncogenic Viruses

Novel Antigens on the Surface of Cells Undergoing Cytocidal Infections

11 Pathogenesis: Nonimmunological Factors and Genetic Resistance

Introduction

Interference and Interferon in the Intact Animal

Other Nonimmunological Factors in Resistance

The Influence of Age on Resistance to Viral Infections

Genetic Resistance

12 Persistent Infections

Introduction

Persistent Infections of Cultured Cells

Persistent Infections in Intact Animals

Latent Infections

Chronic Infections

Slow Infections

Factors in the Pathogenesis of Persistent Infections

13 Viral Oncogenesis: DNA Viruses

Introduction

Tumors Produced under Natural Conditions

Tumor Production by Adenoviruses

Transformation of Cultured Cells by Adenoviruses

Tumor Production by Polyoma Virus and SV40

Interactions of Polyoma Virus and SV40 with Cultured Cells

Events during Nonproductive Infection with Polyoma Virus and SV40

Properties of Transformed Cells

Adenovirus-SV40 Hybrid Viruses

14 Viral Oncogenesis: RNA Viruses

Introduction

Avian RNA Tumor Viruses in Chickens

Rous Sarcoma Virus in Mammals

Interactions of Avian Tumor Viruses with Cultured Avian Cells

Properties of Cells Transformed by Avian Tumor Viruses

Transformation of Cultured Mammalian Cells by Avian Tumor Viruses

Mechanism of Transformation by Avian Tumor Viruses

Murine Leukoviruses : Subgenus A

Pathogenesis of Murine Leukemia

Murine Sarcoma Viruses

Mammary Tumor Virus : Leukovirus Subgenus B

Human Tumor Viruses

Other RNA Tumor Viruses

Induction of Mammalian Leukoviruses, Oncogenes, Protoviruses, Provirus

Epilogue

15 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Diseases

Introduction

Efficacy of Viral Vaccines

Safety of Viral Vaccines

Live Vaccines

Inactivated Vaccines

Passive Immunization

The Psychology of Immunization

Medical and Veterinary Vaccines

Human Viral Vaccines

Prospects for New Vaccines

Antiviral Chemotherapy and Chemoprophylaxis

Interferon

Synthetic Polynucleotides and Other Interferon Inducers

Idoxuridine and Other Halogenated Nucleosides

Thiosemicarbazones

Amantadine and Derivatives

Some Other Compounds of Potential Value

16 The Epidemiology of Viral Infections

Introduction

Routes of Entry and Exit

The Respiratory Tract

The Alimentary Tract

The Eye and the Genitourinary Tract

Vertical Transmission

The Epidemiological Importance of Immunity

Multiple-Host Infections : The Viral Zoonoses

Seasons and Weather

Overwintering of Arboviruses

The Epidemiological Importance of Inapparent Infections

Epidemiological Research

17 Evolutionary Aspects of Viral Diseases

Introduction

The Antiquity of Some Viruses

Changes of Virus and Host in Myxomatosis

Influenza in Man

Antigenic Drift with Other Viruses

New Viruses and New Viral Diseases

The Eradication of Viral Diseases

Bibliography

Index


Details

No. of pages:
850
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1974
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483271880

About the Author

Frank Fenner

Affiliations and Expertise

The Australian National University Canberra, ACT, Australia

B. R. McAuslan

C. A. Mims

Ratings and Reviews