The Biology and Utilization of Shrubs

The Biology and Utilization of Shrubs

1st Edition - December 28, 1988

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  • Editor: Cyrus McKell
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143615

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Description

The Biology and Utilization of Shrubs brings together the wide range of information about shrubs from many disciplines and world locations. The book is organized into seven parts. Part I describes the major shrublands found on each of the vegetated continents. It provides an overview of the dominant shrubland types as well as the associated features of soil and climate that influence the geographic distribution of major shrub species. Part II discusses environmental influences and plant responses. Part III considers the range of genetic diversity for important traits and how these may vary in different habitats. Part IV discusses the effects of stress on physiological processes of shrubs, and the kinds of strategies shrubs employ to meet physiological stress. Part V offers evidence to support the claim that the many virtues of shrubs provide a basis for sustaining shrub use for livestock fodder, wildlife habitat, reclamation and erosion control, fuel, and naturalized landscaping. Part VI outlines methods for collecting and processing seeds from natural stands or from superior genotypes planted in seed production orchards. Part VII describes cultural adaptation to shrub use in a livestock-dominated primitive culture, followed by a detailed economic analysis of establishing shrub plantations to improve livestock production.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    Part I. Shrublands of the World's Continents

    1. North American Shrublands

    I. Introduction

    II. Types of Shrublands

    III. Development and Management of Shrublands

    IV. Summary

    References

    2. South American Shrublands

    I. Introduction

    II. Patagonia

    III. Monte

    IV. Southern Espinal

    V. Chaco Woodland

    VI. Puna and Prepuna

    VII. Central Chile

    VIII. Cerrado and Llanos

    IX. Caatinga

    X. Guajira

    XI. Coastal Desert

    References

    3. Australia: Distribution, Characteristics, and Utilization of Shrublands

    I. Introduction

    II. Australian Shrublands

    III. Conclusions

    References

    4. Mediterranean Europe and East Mediterranean Shrublands

    I. Introduction

    II. Distribution and General Description

    III. Physical Environment

    IV. Evolution and Dynamics of Mediterranean Shrublands

    V. Multipurpose Afforestation, Brush Range Conversion, and Multiple Land Use Patterns

    VI. The Need for New Approaches and Attitudes in Shrubland Management

    VII. Discussion and Conclusions

    References

    5. The Shrublands of Africa

    I. Introduction

    II. The Major Native Shrub Communities

    III. Traditional Uses of Intertropical Shrubs and Shrublands

    IV. Browse Plantations in the Tropics

    V. Biology, Multiplication, and Utilization of Intertropical Shrubs

    VI. Present Evolution of African Shrublands and Long-Term Consequences

    VII. Conclusion: Toward Ecological Management of Shrubland Ecosystems

    References

    6. Southern African Shrublands

    I. Introduction

    II. Physiography and Geology

    III. Climate

    IV. Soils

    V. Historical Perspective

    VI. Vegetation

    VII. Utilization

    VIII. Conservation

    References

    7. Shrublands of the Indian Subcontinent

    I. Introduction

    II. Climate, Soil Types, and General Distributional Patterns of Shrubs

    III. Shrubs of Different Regions

    IV. Utilization and Potential

    V. Problems and Prospects

    References

    8. Shrublands of the USSR in Asia

    I. Introduction

    II. The Steppes of Eurasia

    III. Semideserts and Deserts in Asia

    IV. Management of Shrublands in Asia/USSR in the Past, Present, and Future

    References

    9. Shrublands of China

    I. Introduction

    II. Distribution of Vegetation Zones and Shrublands in China

    III. Main Shrubland Types in China

    IV. Uses of Shrublands in China

    V. Problems and Prospects

    References

    Part II. Environmental Influences and Plant Responses

    10. Shrubs as a Growth Form

    I. Introduction

    II. Description of Monocharacter Growth Forms

    III. Monocharacter Growth Form Spectra of Selected Mediterranean-Type Shrub Communities in Israel and South Africa

    IV. Conclusions

    References

    11. Shrub Payability

    I. Introduction

    II. Factors Affecting Palatability

    III. Summary

    References

    12. Spatial Pattern-Functional Interactions in Shrub-Dominated Plant Communities

    I. Introduction

    II. Definitions

    III. Interactions of Spatial Patterns with Ecosystem Functions

    IV. Implications of Shrub Spatial Patterns for Inventory, Wildland Management, Habitat Manipulation, and Ecosystem Restoration

    V. Conclusions

    References

    13. The Role of Shrubs in Plant Community Diversity

    I. The Role of Shrubs in Plant Community Diversity

    II. Need for Diversity in Seeded Grass Monocultures

    III. Shrubs Increase Opportunities for Multiple Use

    IV. Ways to Establish Shrubs to Achieve Diversity in a Seeded Grass Monoculture

    V. Crested Wheatgrass Plantings: An Example of Needed Diversity

    VI. Summary

    References

    Part III. Genetic Variability in Shrubs

    14. Evolution of Shrubs

    I. Introduction

    II. The Shrub Habit

    III. The Challenge

    IV. The Origin of Species

    V. Summary

    References

    15. Breeding Systems in Shrubs

    I. Introduction

    II. Shrub Distribution and Dominance

    III. Chromosome Systems

    IV. Pollination and Breeding Systems

    V. Dispersal and Establishment

    VI. Marginal Populations

    References

    Part IV. Physiological Adaptation of Shrubs

    16. Moisture Stress Adaptation in Shrubs

    I. Introduction

    II. Drought Resistance

    III. Maintenance of High Tissue Water Potential

    IV. Drought Tolerance at Low Water Potential

    V. Summary

    References

    17. Temperature Stress Adaptation

    I. Introduction

    II. Resistance to Temperature Stress

    III. Responses to Chilling Temperature

    IV. Responses to Freezing Temperature

    V. Acclimation (Hardening) to Low Temperature

    VI. Responses to High Temperature

    VII. Summary

    References

    Part V. Multiple Uses of Shrubs

    18. Nutritive Value of Shrubs

    I. Introduction

    II. Nutrient Needs of Range Animals

    III. Nutritive Value of Shrubs

    IV. Optimizing Shrub Use

    V. Summary

    References

    19. Fodder Shrubs for Range Improvement: The Syrian Experience

    I. Introduction

    II. The Shrub Plantation Program

    III. Integration of Fodder Shrub Use with Total Range Use and Livestock Production

    References

    20. Shrubs as Habitats for Wildlife

    I. Introduction

    II. Shrubs as Protection from Weather

    III. Shrubs as Protection from Harassment

    IV. Shrub Stands as Breeding Complexes

    References

    21. Reclamation and Erosion Control Using Shrubs

    I. Introduction

    II. Project Planning

    III. Shrub Establishment—Problems and Solutions

    IV. Monitoring Revegetation Efforts and Handling Special Problems

    References

    22. Use of Shrubs for Fuel

    I. Introduction

    II. Magnitude of the Fuel Problem

    III. Charcoal Production

    IV. Second-Generation Technology

    V. Open-Hearth Efficiency

    VI. Developed Countries

    VII. Choice of Woody Species for Energy Plantations

    VIII. Perspective

    References

    23. Shrubs in the Naturalized Landscape

    I. Introduction

    II. The Role of Native Shrubs in Sustaining the Naturalized Landscape

    III. Receptivity of the Landscaping Industry to Native Shrubs

    IV. The Increasing Economic Benefits of Landscaping with Native Shrubs

    V. Essential Components in Utilizing Native Shrubs for Landscaping

    VI. Aesthetics—A Prime Attribute Available with Native Shrubs

    VII. Overview

    References

    Part VI. Shrub Establishment and Management

    24. Seed Collecting, Processing, and Storage

    I. Site Adaptability

    II. Preparing for the Harvest

    III. Harvesting

    IV. Care of Seed after Harvest

    V. Processing

    VI. Storage

    References

    25. Seed Production from Plantations

    I. Introduction

    II. Choice of Planting Stock

    III. Types of Planting Material

    IV. Orchard Location

    V. Orchard Design

    VI. Cultural Practices

    VII. Seed Harvesting

    References

    26. Native Shrub Propagation and Nursery Stock Production

    I. Introduction

    II. Native Shrubs Produced from Seed

    III. Native Shrubs Produced Asexually

    IV. Production of Native Shrubs in a Nursery

    V. Contract Production of Nursery Stock

    VI. Overview

    References

    27. Forage Shrub Production on Salt-Affected Soils

    I. Introduction

    II. Salt-Tolerant Forage Shrub Resources

    III. Selecting Forage Shrubs for Salt-Affected Soils

    IV. Factors Affecting Establishment

    V. Field Establishment Methods

    VI. Summary

    References

    28. Management Practices for Shrub-Dominated Lands to Assure Multiple-Use Benefits

    I. Introduction

    II. Historical Aspects of Management Impacts on Shrublands

    III. Need for Improved Management

    IV. Improving Shrubland Productivity

    V. Summary

    References

    Part VII. Social and Economic Aspects of Shrubs

    29. The Pokot Way with Thorny Shrubs: A Case Example

    I. Introduction

    II. Shrubland Populations and the Pokot Case

    III. Pokot and Neighbors: Basic Management Strategies

    IV. Pokot Maintenance of Acacia and Grassland

    V. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    30. An Assessment of the Economic Feasibility of Fodder Shrubs Plantation (with Particular Reference to Africa)

    I. Introduction

    II. Evaluation of Shrubs

    III. Shadow Prices and Other Problem Subjects

    IV. Case Studies

    V. Discussion

    VI. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 676
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1988
  • Published: December 28, 1988
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143615

About the Editor

Cyrus McKell

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