The Biology and Utilization of Shrubs - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124848108, 9780323143615

The Biology and Utilization of Shrubs

1st Edition

Editors: Cyrus McKell
eBook ISBN: 9780323143615
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th December 1988
Page Count: 676
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The Biology and Utilization of Shrubs brings together the wide range of information about shrubs from many disciplines and world locations. The book is organized into seven parts. Part I describes the major shrublands found on each of the vegetated continents. It provides an overview of the dominant shrubland types as well as the associated features of soil and climate that influence the geographic distribution of major shrub species. Part II discusses environmental influences and plant responses. Part III considers the range of genetic diversity for important traits and how these may vary in different habitats. Part IV discusses the effects of stress on physiological processes of shrubs, and the kinds of strategies shrubs employ to meet physiological stress. Part V offers evidence to support the claim that the many virtues of shrubs provide a basis for sustaining shrub use for livestock fodder, wildlife habitat, reclamation and erosion control, fuel, and naturalized landscaping. Part VI outlines methods for collecting and processing seeds from natural stands or from superior genotypes planted in seed production orchards. Part VII describes cultural adaptation to shrub use in a livestock-dominated primitive culture, followed by a detailed economic analysis of establishing shrub plantations to improve livestock production.

Table of Contents



Part I. Shrublands of the World's Continents

1. North American Shrublands

I. Introduction

II. Types of Shrublands

III. Development and Management of Shrublands

IV. Summary


2. South American Shrublands

I. Introduction

II. Patagonia

III. Monte

IV. Southern Espinal

V. Chaco Woodland

VI. Puna and Prepuna

VII. Central Chile

VIII. Cerrado and Llanos

IX. Caatinga

X. Guajira

XI. Coastal Desert


3. Australia: Distribution, Characteristics, and Utilization of Shrublands

I. Introduction

II. Australian Shrublands

III. Conclusions


4. Mediterranean Europe and East Mediterranean Shrublands

I. Introduction

II. Distribution and General Description

III. Physical Environment

IV. Evolution and Dynamics of Mediterranean Shrublands

V. Multipurpose Afforestation, Brush Range Conversion, and Multiple Land Use Patterns

VI. The Need for New Approaches and Attitudes in Shrubland Management

VII. Discussion and Conclusions


5. The Shrublands of Africa

I. Introduction

II. The Major Native Shrub Communities

III. Traditional Uses of Intertropical Shrubs and Shrublands

IV. Browse Plantations in the Tropics

V. Biology, Multiplication, and Utilization of Intertropical Shrubs

VI. Present Evolution of African Shrublands and Long-Term Consequences

VII. Conclusion: Toward Ecological Management of Shrubland Ecosystems


6. Southern African Shrublands

I. Introduction

II. Physiography and Geology

III. Climate

IV. Soils

V. Historical Perspective

VI. Vegetation

VII. Utilization

VIII. Conservation


7. Shrublands of the Indian Subcontinent

I. Introduction

II. Climate, Soil Types, and General Distributional Patterns of Shrubs

III. Shrubs of Different Regions

IV. Utilization and Potential

V. Problems and Prospects


8. Shrublands of the USSR in Asia

I. Introduction

II. The Steppes of Eurasia

III. Semideserts and Deserts in Asia

IV. Management of Shrublands in Asia/USSR in the Past, Present, and Future


9. Shrublands of China

I. Introduction

II. Distribution of Vegetation Zones and Shrublands in China

III. Main Shrubland Types in China

IV. Uses of Shrublands in China

V. Problems and Prospects


Part II. Environmental Influences and Plant Responses

10. Shrubs as a Growth Form

I. Introduction

II. Description of Monocharacter Growth Forms

III. Monocharacter Growth Form Spectra of Selected Mediterranean-Type Shrub Communities in Israel and South Africa

IV. Conclusions


11. Shrub Payability

I. Introduction

II. Factors Affecting Palatability

III. Summary


12. Spatial Pattern-Functional Interactions in Shrub-Dominated Plant Communities

I. Introduction

II. Definitions

III. Interactions of Spatial Patterns with Ecosystem Functions

IV. Implications of Shrub Spatial Patterns for Inventory, Wildland Management, Habitat Manipulation, and Ecosystem Restoration

V. Conclusions


13. The Role of Shrubs in Plant Community Diversity

I. The Role of Shrubs in Plant Community Diversity

II. Need for Diversity in Seeded Grass Monocultures

III. Shrubs Increase Opportunities for Multiple Use

IV. Ways to Establish Shrubs to Achieve Diversity in a Seeded Grass Monoculture

V. Crested Wheatgrass Plantings: An Example of Needed Diversity

VI. Summary


Part III. Genetic Variability in Shrubs

14. Evolution of Shrubs

I. Introduction

II. The Shrub Habit

III. The Challenge

IV. The Origin of Species

V. Summary


15. Breeding Systems in Shrubs

I. Introduction

II. Shrub Distribution and Dominance

III. Chromosome Systems

IV. Pollination and Breeding Systems

V. Dispersal and Establishment

VI. Marginal Populations


Part IV. Physiological Adaptation of Shrubs

16. Moisture Stress Adaptation in Shrubs

I. Introduction

II. Drought Resistance

III. Maintenance of High Tissue Water Potential

IV. Drought Tolerance at Low Water Potential

V. Summary


17. Temperature Stress Adaptation

I. Introduction

II. Resistance to Temperature Stress

III. Responses to Chilling Temperature

IV. Responses to Freezing Temperature

V. Acclimation (Hardening) to Low Temperature

VI. Responses to High Temperature

VII. Summary


Part V. Multiple Uses of Shrubs

18. Nutritive Value of Shrubs

I. Introduction

II. Nutrient Needs of Range Animals

III. Nutritive Value of Shrubs

IV. Optimizing Shrub Use

V. Summary


19. Fodder Shrubs for Range Improvement: The Syrian Experience

I. Introduction

II. The Shrub Plantation Program

III. Integration of Fodder Shrub Use with Total Range Use and Livestock Production


20. Shrubs as Habitats for Wildlife

I. Introduction

II. Shrubs as Protection from Weather

III. Shrubs as Protection from Harassment

IV. Shrub Stands as Breeding Complexes


21. Reclamation and Erosion Control Using Shrubs

I. Introduction

II. Project Planning

III. Shrub Establishment—Problems and Solutions

IV. Monitoring Revegetation Efforts and Handling Special Problems


22. Use of Shrubs for Fuel

I. Introduction

II. Magnitude of the Fuel Problem

III. Charcoal Production

IV. Second-Generation Technology

V. Open-Hearth Efficiency

VI. Developed Countries

VII. Choice of Woody Species for Energy Plantations

VIII. Perspective


23. Shrubs in the Naturalized Landscape

I. Introduction

II. The Role of Native Shrubs in Sustaining the Naturalized Landscape

III. Receptivity of the Landscaping Industry to Native Shrubs

IV. The Increasing Economic Benefits of Landscaping with Native Shrubs

V. Essential Components in Utilizing Native Shrubs for Landscaping

VI. Aesthetics—A Prime Attribute Available with Native Shrubs

VII. Overview


Part VI. Shrub Establishment and Management

24. Seed Collecting, Processing, and Storage

I. Site Adaptability

II. Preparing for the Harvest

III. Harvesting

IV. Care of Seed after Harvest

V. Processing

VI. Storage


25. Seed Production from Plantations

I. Introduction

II. Choice of Planting Stock

III. Types of Planting Material

IV. Orchard Location

V. Orchard Design

VI. Cultural Practices

VII. Seed Harvesting


26. Native Shrub Propagation and Nursery Stock Production

I. Introduction

II. Native Shrubs Produced from Seed

III. Native Shrubs Produced Asexually

IV. Production of Native Shrubs in a Nursery

V. Contract Production of Nursery Stock

VI. Overview


27. Forage Shrub Production on Salt-Affected Soils

I. Introduction

II. Salt-Tolerant Forage Shrub Resources

III. Selecting Forage Shrubs for Salt-Affected Soils

IV. Factors Affecting Establishment

V. Field Establishment Methods

VI. Summary


28. Management Practices for Shrub-Dominated Lands to Assure Multiple-Use Benefits

I. Introduction

II. Historical Aspects of Management Impacts on Shrublands

III. Need for Improved Management

IV. Improving Shrubland Productivity

V. Summary


Part VII. Social and Economic Aspects of Shrubs

29. The Pokot Way with Thorny Shrubs: A Case Example

I. Introduction

II. Shrubland Populations and the Pokot Case

III. Pokot and Neighbors: Basic Management Strategies

IV. Pokot Maintenance of Acacia and Grassland

V. Summary and Conclusions


30. An Assessment of the Economic Feasibility of Fodder Shrubs Plantation (with Particular Reference to Africa)

I. Introduction

II. Evaluation of Shrubs

III. Shadow Prices and Other Problem Subjects

IV. Case Studies

V. Discussion

VI. Summary and Conclusions




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© Academic Press 1989
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Cyrus McKell

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