The Biology and Utilization of Grasses

The Biology and Utilization of Grasses

1st Edition - January 28, 1972

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  • Editor: V Younger
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323150026

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The Biology and Utilization of Grasses reviews current knowledge about grass biology, and it highlights the important role of grasses in human existence. It discusses many fundamental aspects of grass biology, including evolution and genetics, morphology, physiology, and ecology, with emphasis on the relationship of these basic concepts to the use of grasses for forage, turf, and rangelands. Comprised of 28 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the evolution and genetics of the grass family, followed by a discussion on practical grass-breeding problems. The reader is also introduced to vegetative growth and development of seedlings and mature plants; the ecological aspects of grasses; soils and mineral nutrition in relation to grass growth; the effects of defoliation (moving or grazing); carbohydrate reserves; physiology of flowering; and grass seed production and culture treatments. Other chapters consider the role of polyploidy in the evolution and distribution of grasses; selection and breeding of grasses for forage and other uses; seedling vigor and seedling establishment; environmental modification for seedling establishment; the microclimate of grass communities; effects on turf grass of cultural practices in relation to microclimate; and competition within the grass community. This book will be of benefit to plant breeders, ecologists, botanists, and biologists.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors



    Chapter 1. The Evolution of the Grass Family

    Origin and Relationships of the Grasses

    What Were the Oldest Grasses Like?

    Adaptive Radiation within the Grass Family

    Evolution at the Species Level

    Polyploidy as a Factor in Grass Evolution

    Polyploidy and Apomixis in Grasses

    Synthetic Evolution in Grasses


    Chapter 2. Polyploidy as a Factor in the Evolution and Distribution of Grasses

    Factors Determining the Evolutionary Advantage of Polyploidy

    Evolution of the Alloploid Series in the Stipeae


    Chapter 3. Breeding of Grasses

    Genetic Diversity

    Germplasm Pools

    Breeding Methods

    Cytogenetics and Breeding Behavior


    Induced Polyploids

    Interspecific and Intergeneric Hybridization

    Induced Mutations

    The Consequences of Selection


    Chapter 4. Developing Superior Turf Varieties

    Turf Variety Improvement Goals

    Species and Breeding Progress


    Chapter 5. Selection and Breeding of Grasses for Forage and Other Uses



    Chapter 6. Seedling Vigor and Seedling Establishment

    Seedling Vigor

    Characteristics Important in Seedling Vigor

    Possibilities for Increasing Seedling Vigor

    Seedling Establishment


    Chapter 7. Breeding for Seedling Vigor

    Pathways to Seedling Vigor

    Breeding Procedures


    Chapter 8. Environmental Modification for Seedling Establishment

    Natural Mulches

    Artificial Mulch

    Land-Forming Procedures

    Seedling Establishment Research at the Jornada Experimental Range


    Chapter 9. The Growth of Leaves and Tillers in Oryzopsis Miliacea

    Shoot Growth

    Leaf Growth


    Chapter 10. Chemical Regulation of Growth in Leaves and Tillers

    Anatomy and Morphology

    Regulation of Growth

    Apical Dominance in Grasses

    Growth Regulators


    Chapter 11. External Factors Affecting Tiller Development

    Temperature as the Principal Variable

    Light as the Principal Variable

    Mineral Nutrition or Water Supply as the Principal Variable

    Interaction of Factors

    Stage of Plant Development and Tiller Senescence



    Chapter 12. The Microclimate of Grass Communities

    Transfer Processes in the Air within the Canopy

    Transfers at Leaf Surfaces

    Energy Exchange at the Ground Surface

    Modeling the Microclimate


    Chapter 13. The Turfgrass Community as an Environment for the Development of Facultative Fungal Parasites

    Erratic Occurrence of Some Turfgrass Diseases

    Competitive Saprophytic Ability (CSA)

    Turfgrass Diseases That Spread by Aerial Hyphae

    Probable Sources of Exogenous Nutrients

    Factors Affecting Fungal Activity

    Factors Affecting Host Resistance

    Factors Affecting Fungal Survival



    Chapter 14. Effects on Turfgrass of Cultural Practices in Relation to Microclimate



    Cultural Practices




    Cultural Practices of Value in Counteracting Adversity of Climate and Use


    Chapter 15. Population Interactions, Diversity, and Community Structure

    General Background

    Models of Community Structure

    Patterns of Diversity

    Genetic Variability in Related Species

    Population Interactions

    Population Regulation


    Chapter 16. Competition within the Grass Community

    Introduction and Dominance of Species in the Community

    Fertilizer Studies

    Weed Control and Revegetation Studies

    Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 17. Soil Aeration and Gas Exchange in Relation to Grasses

    Soil Aeration

    Plant Aeration

    Soil-Plant Aeration


    Chapter 18. Soil Moisture Control for Maximum Grass Response

    The Field Water Balance

    "Efficiency" of Water Use

    Infiltration Management

    Runoff Inducement and Utilization


    Limiting Bare Soil Evaporation

    Specific Aspects of Soil Water Conservation during Germination and Seedling Establishment


    Chapter 19. Problems in Nutrient Availability and Toxicity

    Mineral Toxicities

    Salinity Tolerance

    Nutrient Availability


    Chapter 20. Nutrient Uptake and Assimilation for Quality Turf versus Maximum Vegetative Growth

    Nutrient Availability and Uptake

    Nutrients for Quality versus Growth in Turfgrass

    Nutrient Uptake and Their Effect on Turfgrass Diseases



    Chapter 21. Physiology of Defoliation and Regrowth

    Clipping Effects on Top and Root Growth

    Tillering Rates

    Carbohydrate Reserves

    Interaction of Clipping with Environmental Factors

    Selection of Ecotypes

    Relationship of Carbohydrate Reserves to Regrowth

    Leaf Area, Light, and Regrowth Relationships


    Chapter 22. Defoliation in Relation to Vegetative Growth

    Adaptational Variation in Morphological Types

    Culmless Vegetative Shoots

    Culmed Vegetative Shoots

    Reproductive Shoots

    Resistance to Grazing

    The Grass Phytomer

    Tiller Dynamics


    Chapter 23. Carbohydrate Reserves of Grasses

    Carbohydrate Changes in the Stem Bases with Advance in Maturity

    Starch Accumulators

    Fructosan Accumulators

    Differential Solubility of Levans

    Separation of Fructosans from the Total Sugars

    Molecular-Size Distribution of Fructosans in Stem Bases at Various Growth Stages

    Molecular-Size Distribution of Fructosans in Various Plant Parts

    Carbohydrate Reserves in Relation to Taxonomy

    Analyzing for Total Nonstructural Carbohydrates


    Chapter 24. Grass Reproduction

    Vegetative Reproduction

    Rhizomes, Bulbs, and Corms as Storage Organs

    Floral Reproduction


    Chapter 25. Inflorescence Induction and Initiation

    Control of Reproductive Development

    Induction and Hormonal Synthesis

    Light Intensity, Moisture Stress, and Carbohydrate Levels in Meristematic Tissues



    Chapter 26. Differentiation in the Grass Inflorescence


    Inflorescence Development

    Measurement of Flowering

    Types of Apices


    Overwintering of Initiated Inflorescences

    Floral Inhibition

    Rate of Inflorescence Development




    Chapter 27. Seed Production and Cultural Treatments



    Chapter 28. Future Needs in Grass Research

    Future Needs in Range Research


    Research Needs in the Forage Grasses


    Future Needs in Turfgrass Research


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 446
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1972
  • Published: January 28, 1972
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323150026

About the Editor

V Younger

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