The Biology and Utilization of Grasses - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127747507, 9780323150026

The Biology and Utilization of Grasses

1st Edition

Editors: V Younger
eBook ISBN: 9780323150026
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1972
Page Count: 446
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Description

The Biology and Utilization of Grasses reviews current knowledge about grass biology, and it highlights the important role of grasses in human existence. It discusses many fundamental aspects of grass biology, including evolution and genetics, morphology, physiology, and ecology, with emphasis on the relationship of these basic concepts to the use of grasses for forage, turf, and rangelands. Comprised of 28 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the evolution and genetics of the grass family, followed by a discussion on practical grass-breeding problems. The reader is also introduced to vegetative growth and development of seedlings and mature plants; the ecological aspects of grasses; soils and mineral nutrition in relation to grass growth; the effects of defoliation (moving or grazing); carbohydrate reserves; physiology of flowering; and grass seed production and culture treatments. Other chapters consider the role of polyploidy in the evolution and distribution of grasses; selection and breeding of grasses for forage and other uses; seedling vigor and seedling establishment; environmental modification for seedling establishment; the microclimate of grass communities; effects on turf grass of cultural practices in relation to microclimate; and competition within the grass community. This book will be of benefit to plant breeders, ecologists, botanists, and biologists.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Foreword

Preface

Chapter 1. The Evolution of the Grass Family

Origin and Relationships of the Grasses

What Were the Oldest Grasses Like?

Adaptive Radiation within the Grass Family

Evolution at the Species Level

Polyploidy as a Factor in Grass Evolution

Polyploidy and Apomixis in Grasses

Synthetic Evolution in Grasses

References

Chapter 2. Polyploidy as a Factor in the Evolution and Distribution of Grasses

Factors Determining the Evolutionary Advantage of Polyploidy

Evolution of the Alloploid Series in the Stipeae

References

Chapter 3. Breeding of Grasses

Genetic Diversity

Germplasm Pools

Breeding Methods

Cytogenetics and Breeding Behavior

Apomixis

Induced Polyploids

Interspecific and Intergeneric Hybridization

Induced Mutations

The Consequences of Selection

References

Chapter 4. Developing Superior Turf Varieties

Turf Variety Improvement Goals

Species and Breeding Progress

References

Chapter 5. Selection and Breeding of Grasses for Forage and Other Uses

Text

References

Chapter 6. Seedling Vigor and Seedling Establishment

Seedling Vigor

Characteristics Important in Seedling Vigor

Possibilities for Increasing Seedling Vigor

Seedling Establishment

References

Chapter 7. Breeding for Seedling Vigor

Pathways to Seedling Vigor

Breeding Procedures

References

Chapter 8. Environmental Modification for Seedling Establishment

Natural Mulches

Artificial Mulch

Land-Forming Procedures

Seedling Establishment Research at the Jornada Experimental Range

References

Chapter 9. The Growth of Leaves and Tillers in Oryzopsis Miliacea

Shoot Growth

Leaf Growth

References

Chapter 10. Chemical Regulation of Growth in Leaves and Tillers

Anatomy and Morphology

Regulation of Growth

Apical Dominance in Grasses

Growth Regulators

References

Chapter 11. External Factors Affecting Tiller Development

Temperature as the Principal Variable

Light as the Principal Variable

Mineral Nutrition or Water Supply as the Principal Variable

Interaction of Factors

Stage of Plant Development and Tiller Senescence

Management

References

Chapter 12. The Microclimate of Grass Communities

Transfer Processes in the Air within the Canopy

Transfers at Leaf Surfaces

Energy Exchange at the Ground Surface

Modeling the Microclimate

References

Chapter 13. The Turfgrass Community as an Environment for the Development of Facultative Fungal Parasites

Erratic Occurrence of Some Turfgrass Diseases

Competitive Saprophytic Ability (CSA)

Turfgrass Diseases That Spread by Aerial Hyphae

Probable Sources of Exogenous Nutrients

Factors Affecting Fungal Activity

Factors Affecting Host Resistance

Factors Affecting Fungal Survival

Conclusions

References

Chapter 14. Effects on Turfgrass of Cultural Practices in Relation to Microclimate

Climate

Soil

Cultural Practices

Mowing

Irrigation

Cultivation

Cultural Practices of Value in Counteracting Adversity of Climate and Use

References

Chapter 15. Population Interactions, Diversity, and Community Structure

General Background

Models of Community Structure

Patterns of Diversity

Genetic Variability in Related Species

Population Interactions

Population Regulation

References

Chapter 16. Competition within the Grass Community

Introduction and Dominance of Species in the Community

Fertilizer Studies

Weed Control and Revegetation Studies

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 17. Soil Aeration and Gas Exchange in Relation to Grasses

Soil Aeration

Plant Aeration

Soil-Plant Aeration

References

Chapter 18. Soil Moisture Control for Maximum Grass Response

The Field Water Balance

"Efficiency" of Water Use

Infiltration Management

Runoff Inducement and Utilization

Evapotranspiration

Limiting Bare Soil Evaporation

Specific Aspects of Soil Water Conservation during Germination and Seedling Establishment

References

Chapter 19. Problems in Nutrient Availability and Toxicity

Mineral Toxicities

Salinity Tolerance

Nutrient Availability

References

Chapter 20. Nutrient Uptake and Assimilation for Quality Turf versus Maximum Vegetative Growth

Nutrient Availability and Uptake

Nutrients for Quality versus Growth in Turfgrass

Nutrient Uptake and Their Effect on Turfgrass Diseases

Conclusions

References

Chapter 21. Physiology of Defoliation and Regrowth

Clipping Effects on Top and Root Growth

Tillering Rates

Carbohydrate Reserves

Interaction of Clipping with Environmental Factors

Selection of Ecotypes

Relationship of Carbohydrate Reserves to Regrowth

Leaf Area, Light, and Regrowth Relationships

References

Chapter 22. Defoliation in Relation to Vegetative Growth

Adaptational Variation in Morphological Types

Culmless Vegetative Shoots

Culmed Vegetative Shoots

Reproductive Shoots

Resistance to Grazing

The Grass Phytomer

Tiller Dynamics

References

Chapter 23. Carbohydrate Reserves of Grasses

Carbohydrate Changes in the Stem Bases with Advance in Maturity

Starch Accumulators

Fructosan Accumulators

Differential Solubility of Levans

Separation of Fructosans from the Total Sugars

Molecular-Size Distribution of Fructosans in Stem Bases at Various Growth Stages

Molecular-Size Distribution of Fructosans in Various Plant Parts

Carbohydrate Reserves in Relation to Taxonomy

Analyzing for Total Nonstructural Carbohydrates

References

Chapter 24. Grass Reproduction

Vegetative Reproduction

Rhizomes, Bulbs, and Corms as Storage Organs

Floral Reproduction

References

Chapter 25. Inflorescence Induction and Initiation

Control of Reproductive Development

Induction and Hormonal Synthesis

Light Intensity, Moisture Stress, and Carbohydrate Levels in Meristematic Tissues

Conclusion

References

Chapter 26. Differentiation in the Grass Inflorescence

Systematics

Inflorescence Development

Measurement of Flowering

Types of Apices

Morphology

Overwintering of Initiated Inflorescences

Floral Inhibition

Rate of Inflorescence Development

Vivipary

Conclusion

References

Chapter 27. Seed Production and Cultural Treatments

Text

Reference

Chapter 28. Future Needs in Grass Research

Future Needs in Range Research

Text

Research Needs in the Forage Grasses

Text

Future Needs in Turfgrass Research

Text

Author Index

Subject Index






Details

No. of pages:
446
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1972
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323150026

About the Editor

V Younger