The Biology and Agronomy of Stylosanthes

The Biology and Agronomy of Stylosanthes

1st Edition - January 28, 1985

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  • Editor: Helen Stace
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143929

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The Biology and Agronomy of Stylosanthes covers the proceedings of the 1982 International Symposium on The Biology and Agronomy of Stylosanthes, held in Townsville, Queensland, Australia. The symposium aims to present the developments in the research of the economically important genus, Stylosanthes. Comprised of three parts encompassing 31 chapters, the book discusses Stylosanthes taxonomy, genetic resources, plant-environment interaction, and agronomy. The opening part discusses the taxonomic problems, evolution, and cytogenetic studies of Stylosanthes species. This part also considers the natural variation and distribution, Brazilian species, and existing collection of the genus. The second part of the book presents available data on the occurrence of water shortage in plant tissue and how plants react to it. This part also deals with other environmental constraints to growth and survival, the mineral nutrition, reproductive physiology, and diseases and pest problems of Stylosanthes. A discussion on the influence of mycorrhiza and rhizobium in the genus is also included. The concluding part examines the effect of seed biology on initial pasture establishment and the population dynamics of established pastures. Considerable chapters in this part are devoted to the agronomical aspects of the genus, including nitrogen inputs; chemical composition and nutritive value; and animal and seed production. The book further presents data on global ventures in Stylosanthes, including agricultural projects, research and development, breeding programs, and productivity programs in various regions. This book is an ideal source of information for biologists, agronomists, scientists, and researchers.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors



    Taxonomy and Genetic Resources

    1 Considerations on the Taxonomy of the Genus Stylosanthes

    I. History of the Genus Stylosanthes

    II. Diagnostic Morphology of Stylosanthes

    III. Considerations for a Revision of the Genus

    IV. The Significance of Stylosanthes Taxonomy to Pasture Plant Improvement

    V. Key to Species


    2 Some Brazilian Species of Stylosanthes

    I. Description of the Species

    II. Conclusions


    3 Cytogenetics and the Evolution of Stylosanthes

    I. Cytoevolution in Stylosanthes

    II. Cytoevolution at the Diploid Level

    III. Cytoevolution at the Polyploid Level

    IV. Phytogeography of Stylosanthes Evolution

    V. Conclusions


    4 Natural Distribution of Stylosanthes

    I. Taxonomic Effects

    II. Geographical Distribution

    III. Environmental Adaptation

    IV. Taxonomic Implications

    V. Patterns of Evolution


    Appendix I

    5 Natural Variation in Stylosanthes

    I. Variation between Species

    II. Variation within Species

    III. Conclusions


    6 The Existing Stylosanthes Collections

    I. History and Overview

    II. Location of Collections and their Specificity

    III. Management of Collections

    IV. Priorities for Future Collections

    V. Conclusion


    7 Genetic Systems in Stylosanthes

    I. Mating System

    II. Population Size

    III. Natural Selection of Genotypes

    IV. Cytogenetic Structure

    V. Conclusion


    Plant-Environment Interaction

    8 Adaptation to Water Deficits in Stylosanthes

    I. Terminology and the Occurrence of Water Shortage in Plant Tissues

    II. Reaction of Plants to Water Shortage

    III. Range of Plant Responses

    IV. Field Responses of Stylosanthes to Water Shortage

    V. Definition of Ideotypes

    VI. Conclusions


    9 Environmental Constraints to Growth and Survival of Stylosanthes

    I. Environmental Constraints to Growth

    II. Environmental Effects on Utilization of Stylosanthes Pasture

    III. Environmental Constraints to Survival of Stylosanthes

    IV. Conclusions


    10 The Mineral Nutrition of Stylosanthes

    I. The Nutritional Needs of Plants

    II. Using Soil Criteria for Predicting Nutritional Status

    III. Effects of Mycorrhizal Associations

    IV. Utilization of Sparingly Soluble Phosphate

    V. Comparative Nutrient Requirements of Stylosanthes Species

    VI. Nutrient Concentrations in Plants

    VII. Conclusions


    11 Mycorrhizas and Stylosanthes

    I. Nutritional Limitations to the Growth of Stylosanthes

    II. The Occurrence of Mycorrhizas in Field Soils

    III. Variability in the Effectiveness of Mycorrhizas in Controlled Environment Studies

    IV. The Effectiveness and Survival of Introduced Mycorrhizas in Field Soils

    V. Factors Governing Mycorrhizal Activities in Field Soils

    VI. Mycorrhizas and the Tolerance of Stylosanthes to Stress

    VII. Mycorrhizas and the Genetic Potential of Stylosanthes

    VIII. Conclusions


    12 Rhizobium for Stylosanthes

    I. Effectiveness Responses of Stylosanthes to Strains of Rhizobium

    II. Some Relationships between Observed Effectiveness Response Groups and Origin of Accessions

    III. Prediction of Likely Rhizobium Requirements

    IV. Need for Inoculation of Stylosanthes in Australia

    V. Collection, Isolation and Growth Requirements of Rhizobium for Stylosanthes

    VI. Effect of Root Temperature on Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation


    13 Reproductive Physiology of Stylosanthes

    I. Juvenility

    II. Flowering Morphology

    III. Photoperiod Response

    IV. Marginal Induction

    V. Temperature Interactions

    VI. Moisture

    VII. Flower Development

    VIII. Blooming

    IX. Seed Yield Components

    X. Conclusion


    14 Disease and Pest Problems of Stylosanthes

    I. Diseases of Stylosanthes

    II. Pests of Stylosanthes

    III. Control of Diseases and Pests of Stylosanthes


    15 Responses of Stylosanthes to Anthracnose

    I. The Anthracnose Diseases of Stylosanthes spp. and their Etiology

    II. Life Cycles

    III. Influence of Environment on Disease Development

    IV. Methods of Screening for Resistance

    V. Genetics of the Host-Parasite Interaction

    VI. Future Research Priorities


    Stylosanthes in Agriculture

    16 Seed Biology of Stylosanthes

    I. Morphological Characteristics

    II. Dormancy

    III. Germination

    IV. Seedling Establishment

    V. Seed Predation

    VI. Pasture Establishment

    VII. Pasture Stability

    VIII. Conclusions


    17 The Dynamics of Stylosanthes Pastures

    I. Demographic Characteristics of Stylosanthes

    II. Effects of Grazing

    III. Effects of Soil Fertility

    IV. Effect of Sown Perennial Grasses

    V. Conclusions


    18 Nitrogen Inputs into Agricultural Systems by Stylosanthes

    I. How Much N is Fixed?

    II. Distribution of N in the Plant

    III. Recycling of Legume N

    IV. Soil N Content

    V. Availability of N

    VI. Conclusions


    19 The Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Stylosanthes

    I. Factors Influencing Plant Chemical Composition

    II. Digestibility and Intake

    III. Diet Selection

    IV. Deleterious Factors

    V. Conclusions


    20 Animal Production from Stylosanthes Based Pastures in Australia

    I. Pasture Composition and Ecology

    II. Animal Production

    III. Conclusions


    21 Seed Production of Stylosanthes Cultivars in Australia

    I. History

    II. Choice of Locality for Seed Production

    III. Crop Husbandry

    IV. Harvesting

    V. Seed Processing

    VI. Seed Yields

    VII. Marketing

    VIII. Future Seed Production


    22 Global Ventures in Stylosanthes I. South America

    I. Use in Agriculture

    II. Adaptation to Climate

    III. Adaptation to Soil Conditions

    IV. Agronomic Evaluation

    V. Animal Production

    VI. Potential and Limitations

    VII. Research Problems


    23 Global Ventures in Stylosanthes II. U.S.A. and Caribbean

    I. Native Species

    II. Adaptation to Climate

    III. Adaptation to Soil Conditions

    IV. Productivity

    V. Chemical Composition and I.V.O.M.D.

    VI. Anthracnose


    24 Global Ventures in Stylosanthes III. South-East Africa

    I. Establishment

    II. Fertilizer Responses

    III. Species Comparisons

    IV. Pests and Diseases

    V. Management Trials

    VI. Grazing Trials

    VII. Seed Production

    VIII. Commercial Use

    IX. Conclusions


    25 Global Ventures in Stylosanthes IV. West Africa

    I. Social and Economic Environment

    II. Native Species

    III. Agronomy of Stylosanthes

    IV. Utilization and Animal Production

    V. Research Problems


    26 Global Ventures in Stylosanthes V. South-East Asia

    I. Stylosanthes in Grassland

    II. Stylosanthes in Cropping Systems

    III. Conclusions


    27 Global Ventures in Stylosanthes VI. India

    I. Research Projects

    II. Development Projects

    III. Conclusions


    28 Agronomic Variation and Potential Utilization of Stylosanthes

    I. Species and Characteristics of Agronomic Importance

    II. Results of Agronomic Experiments

    III. Potential Utilization

    IV. Conclusions


    29 Prospects for Stylosanthes Improvement and Utilization

    I. Adaptation

    II. Persistence

    III. Production

    IV. Utilization

    V. Conclusions


    30 Plant Breeding in Stylosanthes

    I. Breeding Objectives

    II. Breeding Methods

    III. Selection Methods

    IV. Constraints

    V. Progress in Stylosanthes Breeding Programs


    31 Future Research and International Cooperation

    List of Acronyms


Product details

  • No. of pages: 654
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1985
  • Published: January 28, 1985
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143929

About the Editor

Helen Stace

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