The Biology and Agronomy of Stylosanthes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126616804, 9780323143929

The Biology and Agronomy of Stylosanthes

1st Edition

Editors: Helen Stace
eBook ISBN: 9780323143929
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1985
Page Count: 654
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Description

The Biology and Agronomy of Stylosanthes covers the proceedings of the 1982 International Symposium on The Biology and Agronomy of Stylosanthes, held in Townsville, Queensland, Australia. The symposium aims to present the developments in the research of the economically important genus, Stylosanthes. Comprised of three parts encompassing 31 chapters, the book discusses Stylosanthes taxonomy, genetic resources, plant-environment interaction, and agronomy.
The opening part discusses the taxonomic problems, evolution, and cytogenetic studies of Stylosanthes species. This part also considers the natural variation and distribution, Brazilian species, and existing collection of the genus. The second part of the book presents available data on the occurrence of water shortage in plant tissue and how plants react to it. This part also deals with other environmental constraints to growth and survival, the mineral nutrition, reproductive physiology, and diseases and pest problems of Stylosanthes. A discussion on the influence of mycorrhiza and rhizobium in the genus is also included. The concluding part examines the effect of seed biology on initial pasture establishment and the population dynamics of established pastures. Considerable chapters in this part are devoted to the agronomical aspects of the genus, including nitrogen inputs; chemical composition and nutritive value; and animal and seed production. The book further presents data on global ventures in Stylosanthes, including agricultural projects, research and development, breeding programs, and productivity programs in various regions.
This book is an ideal source of information for biologists, agronomists, scientists, and researchers.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Acknowledgments

Taxonomy and Genetic Resources

1 Considerations on the Taxonomy of the Genus Stylosanthes

I. History of the Genus Stylosanthes

II. Diagnostic Morphology of Stylosanthes

III. Considerations for a Revision of the Genus

IV. The Significance of Stylosanthes Taxonomy to Pasture Plant Improvement

V. Key to Species

References

2 Some Brazilian Species of Stylosanthes

I. Description of the Species

II. Conclusions

References

3 Cytogenetics and the Evolution of Stylosanthes

I. Cytoevolution in Stylosanthes

II. Cytoevolution at the Diploid Level

III. Cytoevolution at the Polyploid Level

IV. Phytogeography of Stylosanthes Evolution

V. Conclusions

References

4 Natural Distribution of Stylosanthes

I. Taxonomic Effects

II. Geographical Distribution

III. Environmental Adaptation

IV. Taxonomic Implications

V. Patterns of Evolution

References

Appendix I

5 Natural Variation in Stylosanthes

I. Variation between Species

II. Variation within Species

III. Conclusions

References

6 The Existing Stylosanthes Collections

I. History and Overview

II. Location of Collections and their Specificity

III. Management of Collections

IV. Priorities for Future Collections

V. Conclusion

References

7 Genetic Systems in Stylosanthes

I. Mating System

II. Population Size

III. Natural Selection of Genotypes

IV. Cytogenetic Structure

V. Conclusion

References

Plant-Environment Interaction

8 Adaptation to Water Deficits in Stylosanthes

I. Terminology and the Occurrence of Water Shortage in Plant Tissues

II. Reaction of Plants to Water Shortage

III. Range of Plant Responses

IV. Field Responses of Stylosanthes to Water Shortage

V. Definition of Ideotypes

VI. Conclusions

References

9 Environmental Constraints to Growth and Survival of Stylosanthes

I. Environmental Constraints to Growth

II. Environmental Effects on Utilization of Stylosanthes Pasture

III. Environmental Constraints to Survival of Stylosanthes

IV. Conclusions

References

10 The Mineral Nutrition of Stylosanthes

I. The Nutritional Needs of Plants

II. Using Soil Criteria for Predicting Nutritional Status

III. Effects of Mycorrhizal Associations

IV. Utilization of Sparingly Soluble Phosphate

V. Comparative Nutrient Requirements of Stylosanthes Species

VI. Nutrient Concentrations in Plants

VII. Conclusions

References

11 Mycorrhizas and Stylosanthes

I. Nutritional Limitations to the Growth of Stylosanthes

II. The Occurrence of Mycorrhizas in Field Soils

III. Variability in the Effectiveness of Mycorrhizas in Controlled Environment Studies

IV. The Effectiveness and Survival of Introduced Mycorrhizas in Field Soils

V. Factors Governing Mycorrhizal Activities in Field Soils

VI. Mycorrhizas and the Tolerance of Stylosanthes to Stress

VII. Mycorrhizas and the Genetic Potential of Stylosanthes

VIII. Conclusions

References

12 Rhizobium for Stylosanthes

I. Effectiveness Responses of Stylosanthes to Strains of Rhizobium

II. Some Relationships between Observed Effectiveness Response Groups and Origin of Accessions

III. Prediction of Likely Rhizobium Requirements

IV. Need for Inoculation of Stylosanthes in Australia

V. Collection, Isolation and Growth Requirements of Rhizobium for Stylosanthes

VI. Effect of Root Temperature on Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation

References

13 Reproductive Physiology of Stylosanthes

I. Juvenility

II. Flowering Morphology

III. Photoperiod Response

IV. Marginal Induction

V. Temperature Interactions

VI. Moisture

VII. Flower Development

VIII. Blooming

IX. Seed Yield Components

X. Conclusion

References

14 Disease and Pest Problems of Stylosanthes

I. Diseases of Stylosanthes

II. Pests of Stylosanthes

III. Control of Diseases and Pests of Stylosanthes

References

15 Responses of Stylosanthes to Anthracnose

I. The Anthracnose Diseases of Stylosanthes spp. and their Etiology

II. Life Cycles

III. Influence of Environment on Disease Development

IV. Methods of Screening for Resistance

V. Genetics of the Host-Parasite Interaction

VI. Future Research Priorities

References

Stylosanthes in Agriculture

16 Seed Biology of Stylosanthes

I. Morphological Characteristics

II. Dormancy

III. Germination

IV. Seedling Establishment

V. Seed Predation

VI. Pasture Establishment

VII. Pasture Stability

VIII. Conclusions

References

17 The Dynamics of Stylosanthes Pastures

I. Demographic Characteristics of Stylosanthes

II. Effects of Grazing

III. Effects of Soil Fertility

IV. Effect of Sown Perennial Grasses

V. Conclusions

References

18 Nitrogen Inputs into Agricultural Systems by Stylosanthes

I. How Much N is Fixed?

II. Distribution of N in the Plant

III. Recycling of Legume N

IV. Soil N Content

V. Availability of N

VI. Conclusions

References

19 The Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Stylosanthes

I. Factors Influencing Plant Chemical Composition

II. Digestibility and Intake

III. Diet Selection

IV. Deleterious Factors

V. Conclusions

References

20 Animal Production from Stylosanthes Based Pastures in Australia

I. Pasture Composition and Ecology

II. Animal Production

III. Conclusions

References

21 Seed Production of Stylosanthes Cultivars in Australia

I. History

II. Choice of Locality for Seed Production

III. Crop Husbandry

IV. Harvesting

V. Seed Processing

VI. Seed Yields

VII. Marketing

VIII. Future Seed Production

References

22 Global Ventures in Stylosanthes I. South America

I. Use in Agriculture

II. Adaptation to Climate

III. Adaptation to Soil Conditions

IV. Agronomic Evaluation

V. Animal Production

VI. Potential and Limitations

VII. Research Problems

References

23 Global Ventures in Stylosanthes II. U.S.A. and Caribbean

I. Native Species

II. Adaptation to Climate

III. Adaptation to Soil Conditions

IV. Productivity

V. Chemical Composition and I.V.O.M.D.

VI. Anthracnose

References

24 Global Ventures in Stylosanthes III. South-East Africa

I. Establishment

II. Fertilizer Responses

III. Species Comparisons

IV. Pests and Diseases

V. Management Trials

VI. Grazing Trials

VII. Seed Production

VIII. Commercial Use

IX. Conclusions

References

25 Global Ventures in Stylosanthes IV. West Africa

I. Social and Economic Environment

II. Native Species

III. Agronomy of Stylosanthes

IV. Utilization and Animal Production

V. Research Problems

References

26 Global Ventures in Stylosanthes V. South-East Asia

I. Stylosanthes in Grassland

II. Stylosanthes in Cropping Systems

III. Conclusions

References

27 Global Ventures in Stylosanthes VI. India

I. Research Projects

II. Development Projects

III. Conclusions

References

28 Agronomic Variation and Potential Utilization of Stylosanthes

I. Species and Characteristics of Agronomic Importance

II. Results of Agronomic Experiments

III. Potential Utilization

IV. Conclusions

References

29 Prospects for Stylosanthes Improvement and Utilization

I. Adaptation

II. Persistence

III. Production

IV. Utilization

V. Conclusions

References

30 Plant Breeding in Stylosanthes

I. Breeding Objectives

II. Breeding Methods

III. Selection Methods

IV. Constraints

V. Progress in Stylosanthes Breeding Programs

References

31 Future Research and International Cooperation

List of Acronyms

Index


Details

No. of pages:
654
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323143929

About the Editor

Helen Stace

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