The Biological Fractionation of Isotopes

The Biological Fractionation of Isotopes

1st Edition - January 28, 1985

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  • Editor: Eric Galimov
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323157858

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Description

The Biological Fractionation of Isotopes focuses on the biological fractionation of isotopes and presents calculations of the thermodynamic isotopic beta factor for polyatomic carbon compounds. This book provides experimental and theoretical evidence of the phenomenon of thermodynamically ordered distribution of isotopes in biological systems. This book consists of 12 chapters and opens with an overview of the causes of fractionation of isotopes, along with concepts such as isotopic composition and isotopic effects. The discussion then turns to the isotopic composition of the carbon of organisms; a method of calculating the thermodynamic isotopic factors of polyatomic compounds; and results of experimental investigations of intermolecular and intramolecular isotopic effects. A theoretical model of biological fractionation of isotopes is also described. The following chapters explore the regularities of the biological distribution of isotopes and present the results of some biochemical experiments, including the enzymatic decarboxylation of pyruvate and microbiological oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. In addition, the geologic aspects of thermodynamically ordered isotopic distributions in biological products are analyzed. This monograph will be of interest to biologists, geochemists, analytical chemists, and geologists.

Table of Contents


  • Editor's Preface

    Preface to the Russian Edition

    Introduction

    1. Causes of Fractionation of Isotopes

    I. Fundamental Concepts

    II. The Kinetic Isotopic Effect

    III. The Thermodynamic Isotopic Effect

    IV. The Nuclear-Spin Isotopic Effect

    V. Systematics of Isotopic Effects

    References

    2. Isotopic Composition of the Carbon of Organisms

    I. Fractionation of Isotopes in the Organism-Environment System

    II. Isotopic Composition of Biochemical Components

    III. Attempts to Explain Biological Fractionation of Isotopes

    References

    3. Method of Calculating the Thermodynamic Isotopic Factors of Polyatomic Compounds

    I. Intra- and Intermolecular Thermodynamic Isotopic Effects: Relationship between βi and βΣ Values

    II. Spectral Method of Calculating βi Factors

    III. The Principle of Additive Calculation of the β Factor

    IV. Isotopic Bond Numbers of Carbon

    V. Precision of the Additive Method

    VI. Statistical Analysis of the Divergence between βi 13Cspectr And βi 13Caddit

    VII. Isotopic Bond Numbers of Nitrogen

    VIII. Isotopic Bond Numbers of Oxygen

    IX. Some Regularities Characterizing Isotopic Bond Numbers

    X. Other Additive Methods

    XI. Temperature Dependence of Thermodynamic Isotopic Factors

    References

    4. Experimental Evidence of Thermodynamically Ordered Distribution of Isotopes in Biological Systems

    I. Distribution of Isotopes between Individual Amino Acids

    II. Intra-molecular Distribution of Isotopes in Amino Acids

    III. Distribution of Carbon Isotopes in the Components of the Lipid Fraction

    IV. Intra-molecular Distribution of Isotopes in Acetate

    V. Intra-molecular Distribution of Isotopes in Aromatic Monomers of Lignin

    VI. Isotopic Composition of the Carbon of Phytol and the Porphyrin Series of Chlorophyll

    VII. Isotopic Composition of Fragments of the Hemin Molecule

    VIII. Intra-molecular Isotopic Effects in other Biogenic Compounds

    References

    5. Theoretical Model of Biological Fractionation of Isotopes

    I. Mechanism of Production of the Thermodynamic Isotopic Effect in Enzymatic Catalysis

    II. Fractionation of Isotopes in an Enzymatic Reaction

    III. The Isotopic Transfer Effect

    IV. Remarks on the Procedure of Kinetic Analysis of Enzymatic Reactions

    V. Fractionation of Isotopes in the Case of Variable Volumes of Substrate and Product

    VI. Model of Fractionation of Isotopes in a Metabolically Related System of Enzymatic Reactions

    References

    6. Explanation of the Regularities of the Biological Distribution of Isotopes in the Framework of the Proposed Theory

    I. δ13C-ßΣ 13C Correlation

    II. Intra-molecular Thermodynamically Ordered Distribution of Isotopes

    III. Cases of the Absence of Thermodynamically Ordered Distribution of Isotopes

    References

    7. Interpretation of the Results of Some Biochemical Experiments

    I. Enzymatic Decarboxylation of Pyruvate

    II. Microbiological Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetic Acid

    References

    8. Fractionation of Isotopes in Biological Systems

    I. The Calvin Cycle

    II. The Hatch-Slack Cycle

    III. The Krebs Cycle

    References

    9. Biological Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes

    I. 18O/16O of Biological Oxygen

    II. Nature of Oxygen Isotopic Effects in Biological Systems

    References

    10. New Isotopic Criteria in the Solution of Problems of the Genesis of Organic Compounds in Nature

    I. Experimental Investigation of the Intra-molecular Distribution of Isotopes in Abiogenic Analogs of some Biogenic Compounds

    II. Thermodynamic Isotopic Effects in non-Biological Systems

    III. Isotopic Criteria for the Recognition of Biogenic and Abiogenic Compounds

    IV. Distribution of Isotopes in Products of the fiFscher-Tropsch Reaction

    V. Distribution of Isotopes in Products of Synthesis in an Electrical Discharge

    VI. Isotopic Composition of the Carbon Components of Carbonaceous Chondrites

    References

    11. Geological Aspects of Thermodynamically Ordered Isotopic Distributions in Biological Products

    I. Chemistry of the Transformation of Living Matter to Fossil Forms

    II. The Origin of Petroleum

    III. Determination of the Genesis and Source of the Hydrocarbons Forming a Given Gas Field

    IV. Relationship of the Isotopic Composition of Biogenic Carbon to the Ambient Temperature

    V. Variation in the Isotopic Composition of Organic Carbon over Geologic Time

    References

    12. The Thermodynamic State of Life

    References


Product details

  • No. of pages: 282
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1985
  • Published: January 28, 1985
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323157858

About the Editor

Eric Galimov

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