The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483232867, 9781483258690

The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone

1st Edition

Editors: Geoffrey H. Bourne
eBook ISBN: 9781483258690
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1956
Page Count: 888
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The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone focuses on the advancements of techniques, methodologies, and approaches involved in bone studies, including general anatomy, tissues, collagen fibers, and calcification.

The selection first offers information on the general anatomy and histology of bone and bone as a mechanical engineering problem. Topics include strength of healing fractures, nervous influences on bone, growth of the skull, bone strength, primary constituents of bony tissue, and types and organization of bony tissue. The text then elaborates on the ground substance of connective tissue and cartilage, organic matrix of bone, and collagen fibers of connective tissue.

The publication takes a look at the ultrastructure and distribution of mineral salts in bone tissue, osteoblast, and osteoclast. Discussions focus on microscopical appearances, integration of morphological and histochemical studies, cytochemistry, distribution of inorganic salts in bone tissue, relation of collagen to its environment, and structure of collagen fibers. The publication also examines pathological calcification, effects of radiation on bone, parathyroid glands and bone, and anterior pituitary regulation of skeletal development.

The selection is a dependable source of data for researchers interested in the biochemistry and physiology of bone.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Chapter 1. General Anatomy and Histology of Bone

I. General Introduction

II. The Primary Constituents of Bony Tissues

III. Types of Bony Tissue

IV. Organization of Bony Tissue

V. "Membrane" and "Cartilage" Bone


Plate I

2. Bone as a Mechanical Engineering Problem

I. Introduction

II. Shape and Size

III. Growth of the Skull

IV. Cancellous Bone

V. Bone Strength

VI. Hormonal Effects

VII. Nervous Influences on Bone

VIII. Strength of Healing Fractures


3. The Ground Substance of Connective Tissue and Cartillage

I. Introduction

II. Historic Survey

III. The Term "Ground Substance IV. Distribution and Physical Characteristics

V. Microscopy of Ground Substances

VI. Chemistry of Ground Substances

VII. Genesis of Ground Substance Materials

VIII. Some Physiological Aspects

IX. Possible Organization of Ground Substance

X. Concluding Remarks


4. The Organic Matrix of Bone

I. Introduction

II. The Chemistry of Bone Collagen

III. Chemical Nature of the Other Constituents of the Matrix

IV. The Place of the "Organic Matrix" in Bone Structure


5. Collagen Fibers of Connective Tissue

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Investigation

III. Structure of Collagen Fibers

IV. Formation of Collagen Fibers

V. Relation of Collagen to Its Environment

VI. Alterations of Collagen Fibers Observed by X-ray Diffraction and Electron Microscopy

VII. Destruction of Collagen Fibers

Plates I and II


6. Ultrastructure and Distribution of Mineral Salts in Bone Tissue

I. Introduction

II. Distribution of the Inorganic Salts in Bone Tissue

III. Survey of Methods for the Study of the Ultrastructure of Bone

IV. Structure of the Inorganic Constituents of Bone

V. Relation Between Mineral Salts and Collagen in Bone Tissue

Plates I and II


7. The Osteoblast

I. Introduction

II. General Cytology

III. Cytochemistry

IV. Integration of Morphological and Histochemical Studies

V. Functional Significance

VI. Morphological Status and Transformations

VII. Conclusion

Plates I-III


8. The Osteoblast

I. Introduction

II. Microscopical Appearances

III. Origin and Fate

IV. Function


Plates I-III


9. Phosphatase and Bone

I. Historical

II. Identity of Bone Phosphatase and Comparison with Soft Tissue Phosphatase

III. Histological Distribution of Phosphatase in Mature and Developing Bone

IV. Phosphatase and Bone Repair

V. Significance of Phosphatase in Bone Formation

VI. Summary


Plates I-III


10. The Chemistry of Calcification

I. Nature of Bone Salt

II. Relation of Bone Composition to Diet

III. Cartilage and Bone Matrix

IV. Calcium Binding of Cartilage

V. In Vitro Calcification

VI. The Role of Glycogenolysis

VII. Reversible Inhibition of the Calcifying Mechanism

VIII. Conclusions


11. Citric Acid and Bone

I. Introduction

II. The Citrate Content of Bone

III. Complex Formation Between Citrate and Calcium

IV. Citrate and Calcium in Blood and Urine

V. Citrate and Calcium Deposition, in Vitro and in Bone

VI. Citrate, Rickets and Vitamin D

VII. Citrate Metabolism in Bone

VIII. Bone, Citrate, and Hormones

IX. Summary


12. Autoradiographic Studies of Bone Formation and Growth

I. Introduction

II. General Features of Bone Formation

III. Intramembranous Bone Formation

IV. Endochondral Bone Formation


Plates I-X

13. Osteogenesis in the Human Embryo and Fetus

I. Introduction

II. Ossification and Growth

III. Development of Specific Bones

IV. Onset of Ossification

V. General Considerations of Bone Development


14. Skeletal Development in Tissue Culture

I. Introduction

II. Morphogenesis

III. Physiology

IV. Conclusion


15. The Growth of Bone

I. Body Growth and Bone Growth

II. Structural Aspects of Bone Growth

III. Physiological Control of Normal Bone Growth

IV. Bone Growth Under Pathological Conditions

V. Conclusions


16. Repair and Transplantation of Bone

I. The Repair of Bone

II. The Transplantation of Bone

III. Bone Induction


17. Vitamin A and Bone

I. The Chemistry of Vitamin A

II. Hypovitaminosis A

III. Hypervitaminosis A


18. Vitamin C and Bone

I. Introduction

II. Vitamin C Deficiency and Intercellular Substances in General

III. Bone



Color Plate

19. Vitamin D and Bone

I. Introduction

II. Chronological Survey

III. Vitamin D As Anti-Rachitic Vitamin

IV. Definition of Rickets

V. Abnormality of Bone Structure and Composition in Rickets

VI. Rickets As a Deficiency Disease

VII. Mode of Action of Vitamin D

VIII. Hypervitaminosis D

IX. Synopsis of Vitamin D Chemistry and Biochemistry


20. Steroid Hormones and Bone

I. Introduction

II. Scope of the Problem

III. Sexual Dimorphism of the Skeleton

IV. Ovarian Steroids

V. Testicular Steroids

VI. Adrenal Cortical Steroids

VII. Summary and Conclusions

Plate I

Plate II


21. Anterior Pituitary Regulation of Skeletal Development

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Conditions

III. Effects of Hormonal Deficiency on Skeletal Growth

IV. Effects of Hormonal Deficiency on Skeletal Maturation

V. Effects of Hormonal Deficiency on Skeletal Proportions

VI. Other Relationships of the Pituitary Gland to Skeletal Development

VII. Summary


22. The Parathyroid Glands and Bone

I. Introduction

II. Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology of the Parathyroid Glands

III. The Parathyroid Hormone

IV. The Mode of Action of the Parathyroid Hormone

V. The Mechanism of Resorption of Bone

VI. The Role of the Parathyroid Glands in Homeostasis

VII. Hyperparathyroidism and Bone Disease


23. The Effects of Radiation no Bone

I. Introduction

II. Radiation Dosimetry with Special Relation to Bone

III. Relationship of Anatomy and Physiology of Bone to Radiation Pathology and Dosimetry

IV. Pathological Changes Induced in Bone by Radiation

V. Conclusions


24. Pathological Calcification

I. Introduction

II. Sequences in Pathological Calcification

III. Relations Between Electrolyte Imbalance and Pathological Calcification

IV. Relations Between Matrices and Pathological Calcification

V. Relations Between Cells and Pathological Calcification

VI. Relations Between the Ageing Process and Pathological Calcification

VII. An Exchange-Replacement Theory of Calcification of Organic Matrices


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1956
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Geoffrey H. Bourne

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