The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy

The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy

1st Edition - February 5, 1985

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  • Editor: Peter W. Hawkes
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483284651

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The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy presents the technical development of electron microscope. This book examines the mechanical as well as the technical problems arising from the physical properties of the electron. Organized into 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history of scanning electron microscopy and electron beam microanalysis. This text then explains the applications and capabilities of electron microscopes during the war. Other chapters consider the classical techniques of light microscopy. This book presents as well the schematic outline of the preparation techniques for investigation of nerve cells by electron microscopy. The final chapter deals with the historical account of the beginnings of electron microscopy in Russia. This book is a valuable resource for scientists, technologists, physicists, electrical engineers, designers, and technicians. Graduate students as well as researcher workers who are interested in the history of electron microscopy will also find this book extremely useful.

Table of Contents

  • Contents

    Contributors to Supplement 16



    On the History of Scanning Electron Microscopy, of the Electron Microprobe, and of Early Contributions to Transmission Electron Microscopy

    I. Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Microprobe

    II. Early Contributions to Transmission Electron Microscopy

    III. Conclusion


    Random Recollections of the Early Days

    I. How I Came into the Subject

    II. These I Met along the Way

    III. Aid from America

    IV. Final Word


    Early History of Electron Microscopy in Czechoslovakia

    I. Introduction

    II. Construction of the First Electron Microscope in Czechoslovakia

    III. Desk Transmission Electron Microscope BS 242

    IV. Production of Electron Microscopes in Czechoslovakia

    V. Conclusion

    Appendix A: Bibliography of Related Publications

    Appendix B: Publications from the Institute of Scientific Instruments of the Czechoslovak Academy of Science in Brno (in Czech)


    Personal Reminiscences of Early Days in Electron Microscopy

    I. Preamble

    II. Beginnings in Britain

    III. The Microscope at the Shirley Institute

    IV. Inconveniences of Early Electron Microscopes

    V. Group Contacts in Britain during the War

    VI. Immediate Postwar Conferences in Europe

    VII. Specimen Preparation and "The Practice of Electron Microscopy"

    VIII. Grids

    IX. A Problem with Photographic Plates

    X. Capabilities and Use of Electron Microscopes during the War

    XI. Shadowcasting

    XII. Section Cutting

    XIII. Replicas and Metallurgy

    XIV. Optics of the Electron Microscope

    XV. Later Instrumental Developments

    XVI. Conclusion


    Megavolt Electron Microscopy

    I. Introduction

    II. Early Developments in Electron Microscopy

    III. How I Came to Electron Microscopy

    IV. Megavolt Electron Microscopy

    V. Applications of HVEM

    VI. Resolution and Contrast in Megavolt Electron Microscopy

    VII. Future Prospects


    Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Ultramicrotomy: Reminiscences and Reflections

    I. Introduction

    II. The Nobel Institute for Physics

    III. The Diamond Knife

    IV. The Venezuelan Institute for Neurology and Brain Research

    V. Low-Temperature Electron Microscopy and Ultramicrotomy

    VI. Cryo-Electron Microscopy

    VII. Reflections and Outlook


    The French Electrostatic Electron Microscope (1941-1952)

    I. Introduction

    II. Electron Optics in Occupied France

    III. The Liberation of the North of France and the Transition to Peace


    Recollections from the Early Years: Canada-USA

    I. Introduction

    II. Initial Work: University of Toronto (1935-1936)

    III. Kodak Research Laboratories, Rochester, New York ( 1937 -1941 )

    IV. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    V. Transition from the Early Years


    My Recollection of the Early History of Our Work on Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope

    I. Emission Microscope

    II. Studies of Specimen Techniques for Electron Microscopy

    III. Electron-Microscopic Observations of Ionic Crystals

    IV. The Pointed Filament and Its Application

    V. Interference and Coherence


    Reminiscences of the Development of Electron Optics and Electron Microscope Instrumentation in Japan

    I. Historical Survey of the Early Stages of Electron Microscopy in Japan

    II. Lens Aberrations

    III. Practical Magnetic Lens Design

    IV. Formation of Caustic and Shadow Images

    V. Stigmators

    VI. Electron Phase Microscope

    VII. High-Voltage Electron Microscopes


    Early Electron Microscopy in The Netherlands



    The Industrial Development of the Electron Microscope by the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company and AEI Limited

    I. Introduction

    II. Cathode Rays and Electron Images—Gabor and the Ironclad Concentration Coil

    III. The First Commercial Electron Microscope—EMI

    IV. Wartime Developments

    V. The EM2 Electron Microscope

    VI. A Three-Stage Electron Microscope—EM3

    VII. A Simple Electron Microscope—EM4

    VIII. High-Voltage Electron Microscopy—The EM5

    IX. Improving the Resolving Power—EM3A and the Emergence of Electron Holography

    X. High-Resolution Microscopes—EM6

    XI. The Image Intensifier

    XII. The Electron Microscope in Biology

    XIII. Very High-Resolution Microscopy


    The Development of the Scanning Electron Microscope

    I. Introduction

    II. The Initial Aims of the Three Groups

    III. The Cambridge Microscope

    IV. Uses of the Microscope


    Some Recollections of Electron Microscopy in Britain from 1943 to 1948



    L.L. Marion, 1901-1979


    Bibliographical Appendix: Publications of L. L. Marton


    1950-1960: A Decade from the Viewpoint of an Applications Laboratory

    I. Introduction

    II. Experience with Testing a New Microscope

    III. A Microscope with Higher Resolving Power

    IV. Development and Improvement of Preparation Methods

    V. Teaching Duties in an Applications Laboratory for Electron Microscopy

    VI. Final Remarks


    From the Cathode-Ray Oscillograph to the High-Resolution Electron Microscope

    I. Introduction

    II. Developments up to the End of World War II

    III. Period of Transition

    IV. Improvements in the Electron Microscope after 1945

    V. Concluding Remarks





    Complementary Accounts of the History of Electron Microscopy





Product details

  • No. of pages: 654
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1985
  • Published: February 5, 1985
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483284651

About the Editor

Peter W. Hawkes

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