The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120145782, 9781483284651

The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy

1st Edition

Editors: Peter W. Hawkes
eBook ISBN: 9781483284651
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 5th February 1985
Page Count: 654
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The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy presents the technical development of electron microscope. This book examines the mechanical as well as the technical problems arising from the physical properties of the electron. Organized into 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history of scanning electron microscopy and electron beam microanalysis. This text then explains the applications and capabilities of electron microscopes during the war. Other chapters consider the classical techniques of light microscopy. This book presents as well the schematic outline of the preparation techniques for investigation of nerve cells by electron microscopy. The final chapter deals with the historical account of the beginnings of electron microscopy in Russia. This book is a valuable resource for scientists, technologists, physicists, electrical engineers, designers, and technicians. Graduate students as well as researcher workers who are interested in the history of electron microscopy will also find this book extremely useful.

Table of Contents


Contributors to Supplement 16



On the History of Scanning Electron Microscopy, of the Electron Microprobe, and of Early Contributions to Transmission Electron Microscopy

I. Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Microprobe

II. Early Contributions to Transmission Electron Microscopy

III. Conclusion


Random Recollections of the Early Days

I. How I Came into the Subject

II. These I Met along the Way

III. Aid from America

IV. Final Word


Early History of Electron Microscopy in Czechoslovakia

I. Introduction

II. Construction of the First Electron Microscope in Czechoslovakia

III. Desk Transmission Electron Microscope BS 242

IV. Production of Electron Microscopes in Czechoslovakia

V. Conclusion

Appendix A: Bibliography of Related Publications

Appendix B: Publications from the Institute of Scientific Instruments of the Czechoslovak Academy of Science in Brno (in Czech)


Personal Reminiscences of Early Days in Electron Microscopy

I. Preamble

II. Beginnings in Britain

III. The Microscope at the Shirley Institute

IV. Inconveniences of Early Electron Microscopes

V. Group Contacts in Britain during the War

VI. Immediate Postwar Conferences in Europe

VII. Specimen Preparation and "The Practice of Electron Microscopy"

VIII. Grids

IX. A Problem with Photographic Plates

X. Capabilities and Use of Electron Microscopes during the War

XI. Shadowcasting

XII. Section Cutting

XIII. Replicas and Metallurgy

XIV. Optics of the Electron Microscope

XV. Later Instrumental Developments

XVI. Conclusion


Megavolt Electron Microscopy

I. Introduction

II. Early Developments in Electron Microscopy

III. How I Came to Electron Microscopy

IV. Megavolt Electron Microscopy

V. Applications of HVEM

VI. Resolution and Contrast in Megavolt Electron Microscopy

VII. Future Prospects


Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Ultramicrotomy: Reminiscences and Reflections

I. Introduction

II. The Nobel Institute for Physics

III. The Diamond Knife

IV. The Venezuelan Institute for Neurology and Brain Research

V. Low-Temperature Electron Microscopy and Ultramicrotomy

VI. Cryo-Electron Microscopy

VII. Reflections and Outlook


The French Electrostatic Electron Microscope (1941-1952)

I. Introduction

II. Electron Optics in Occupied France

III. The Liberation of the North of France and the Transition to Peace


Recollections from the Early Years: Canada-USA

I. Introduction

II. Initial Work: University of Toronto (1935-1936)

III. Kodak Research Laboratories, Rochester, New York ( 1937 -1941 )

IV. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

V. Transition from the Early Years


My Recollection of the Early History of Our Work on Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope

I. Emission Microscope

II. Studies of Specimen Techniques for Electron Microscopy

III. Electron-Microscopic Observations of Ionic Crystals

IV. The Pointed Filament and Its Application

V. Interference and Coherence


Reminiscences of the Development of Electron Optics and Electron Microscope Instrumentation in Japan

I. Historical Survey of the Early Stages of Electron Microscopy in Japan

II. Lens Aberrations

III. Practical Magnetic Lens Design

IV. Formation of Caustic and Shadow Images

V. Stigmators

VI. Electron Phase Microscope

VII. High-Voltage Electron Microscopes


Early Electron Microscopy in The Netherlands



The Industrial Development of the Electron Microscope by the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company and AEI Limited

I. Introduction

II. Cathode Rays and Electron Images—Gabor and the Ironclad Concentration Coil

III. The First Commercial Electron Microscope—EMI

IV. Wartime Developments

V. The EM2 Electron Microscope

VI. A Three-Stage Electron Microscope—EM3

VII. A Simple Electron Microscope—EM4

VIII. High-Voltage Electron Microscopy—The EM5

IX. Improving the Resolving Power—EM3A and the Emergence of Electron Holography

X. High-Resolution Microscopes—EM6

XI. The Image Intensifier

XII. The Electron Microscope in Biology

XIII. Very High-Resolution Microscopy


The Development of the Scanning Electron Microscope

I. Introduction

II. The Initial Aims of the Three Groups

III. The Cambridge Microscope

IV. Uses of the Microscope


Some Recollections of Electron Microscopy in Britain from 1943 to 1948



L.L. Marion, 1901-1979


Bibliographical Appendix: Publications of L. L. Marton


1950-1960: A Decade from the Viewpoint of an Applications Laboratory

I. Introduction

II. Experience with Testing a New Microscope

III. A Microscope with Higher Resolving Power

IV. Development and Improvement of Preparation Methods

V. Teaching Duties in an Applications Laboratory for Electron Microscopy

VI. Final Remarks


From the Cathode-Ray Oscillograph to the High-Resolution Electron Microscope

I. Introduction

II. Developments up to the End of World War II

III. Period of Transition

IV. Improvements in the Electron Microscope after 1945

V. Concluding Remarks





Complementary Accounts of the History of Electron Microscopy






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© Academic Press 1985
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Peter W. Hawkes

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