The Antibody Molecule - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125199506, 9781483273853

The Antibody Molecule

1st Edition

Authors: Alfred Nisonoff John E. Hopper Susan B. Spring
Editors: F. J. Dixon Henry G. Kunkel
eBook ISBN: 9781483273853
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1975
Page Count: 558
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The Antibody Molecule reviews the literature leading to current knowledge of the structure of immunoglobulins. The book begins by outlining some of the basic structural characteristics of immunoglobulins without citing the references on which the information is based. Separate chapters follow covering the chemical nature of the active site of an antibody molecule and mechanisms of interaction with hapten; the general structural features and properties of the various classes of human immunoglobulin; and amino acid sequences of human and mouse L chains and of human and rabbit H chains. Subsequent chapters deal with the evolution of the immunoglobulin classes; special properties of mouse, guinea pig, rabbit, and horse immunoglobulins; idiotypic specificities of immunglobulins; and the genetic control of antibodies. This book is meant for immunologists who have not personally observed the development of this exciting period in the history of immunology. It will also provide useful supplemental reading for the serious student or investigator who wishes to become familiar with the nature of the antibody molecule, its genetic control, and mode of action.

Table of Contents


1 General Structural Features of Immunoglobulin Molecules; Myeloma Proteins

Myeloma and Bence Jones Proteins



2 Nature of the Active Site of an Antibody Molecule and the Mechanism of Antibody-Hapten Interactions

I. Inhibition of Precipitation by Haptens and Chemical Modification as Probes for Antibody Specificity

II. Specificity of Antibodies to Synthetic Polypeptides

III. Stabilization of the Antibody Molecule by Interaction with Hapten

IV. Induction of Optical Activity in Hapten Bound to Antibody

V. The Question of Conformational Changes Induced in Antibodies upon Interaction with Antigen or Hapten

VI. Rates and Energetic Aspects of Antigen-Antibody Reactions

VII. Affinity Labeling of Antibody Molecules or Myeloma Proteins with Antibody Activity


3 Human Immunoglobulins

I. General Structural Properties

II. Kappa and Lambda Chains

III. IgG and Its Subclasses

IV. Structure and Properties of Human IgM

V. Structure and Properties of Human IgA



VIII. ß2-Microglobulin (ß2m)

IX. Rheumatoid Factors


4 Amino Acid Sequences in Human Immunoglobulins and in Mouse Light Chains

I. Introduction

II. Numbering System

III. Amino Acid Sequences in Human L Chains

IV. Amino Acid Sequences in L Chains of the Mouse

V. Common Evolutionary Origin of K and A Chains of Human and Mouse Origin

VI. Amino Acid Sequences in Rabbit K Chains

VII. Amino Acid Sequences in Human and Rabbit H Chains

VIII. Amino Acid Sequence of ß2-Microglobulin

IX. Amyloidosis

X. Carbohydrate in Immunoglobulins


5 The Three-Dimensional Structure of Immunoglobulins

I. X-Ray Crystallography

II. Physicochemical Investigations Relating to Three-Dimensional Structure


6 Properties and Interactions of the Light and Heavy Chains of Immunoglobulins

I. Introduction

II. Separation of Light and Heavy Chains

III. Solubility and Conformational Properties of the Isolated Chains

IV. Antibody Activity in Isolated Chains and in Recombinants of Heavy and Light Chains

V. Interaction of VL or CL Segments of Light Chains with Intact Heavy Chains

VI. Stability of Fragments Consisting Only of V Domains

VII. Effect of Hapten on the Strength of Interaction of H and L Chains

VIII. Contribution to Antibody Activity of Isolated H and L Chains

IX. Half-Molecules of IgG


7 Evolution of the Immunoglobulins

I. Introduction

II. Universality of IgM-Like Molecules in Vertebrates

III. Immunoglobulins of Fish

IV. Immunoglobulins of Amphibia

V. Immunoglobulins of Reptiles

VI. Immunoglobulins of Birds; Appearance of IgA

VII. Carbohydrate Content of Immunoglobulins from Various Species on the Phylogenetic Scale

VIII. Phylogeny of IgA, IgE, IgG Subclasses, Light Chain Types, and the VHm Subgroup

IX. Selective Advantages in the Evolution of Immunoglobulin Classes


8 Immunoglobulins of the Rabbit, Mouse, Guinea Pig, and Horse

I. Introduction

II. General Considerations

III. Antigeiiic Relationships

IV. Homocy to tropic Antibodies: IgE

V. Rabbit Immunoglobulins

VI. Guinea Pig Immunoglobulins

VII. Mouse Immunoglobulins

VIII. Horse Immunoglobulins

IX. Passive Cutaneous Anaphylactic Reactions in Guinea Pigs Mediated by Heterologous Immunoglobulins


9 Allotypes of Rabbit, Human, and Mouse Immunoglobulins

I. Introduction

II. Rabbit Allotypes

III. Human Allotypes

IV. Mouse Allotypes

V. Suppression of Allotypic Specificities


10 Homogeneous Antibodies and Myeloma Proteins with Antibody Activity

I. Introduction

II. Homogeneous Antistreptococcal Antibodies

III. Homogeneous Antibodies to Pneumococcal Polysaccharides

IV. Homogeneous Antihapten Antibodies

V. Relationship of Structure of Antigen to the Degree of Heterogeneity of Antibody

VI. Restricted Heterogeneity of Human Antibodies to Polysaccharide Antigens

VII. Influence of Genetic Factors on the Magnitude of the Response of Rabbits to Streptococcal Antigens

VIII. Influence of Genetic Factors on the Heterogeneity of Rabbit Antibodies Produced against Streptococcal Antigens

IX. Amino Acid Sequences of Homogeneous Rabbit Antibodies

X. Cold Agglutinins from Patients with Chronic Cold Hemagglutinin Syndrome (CHS)

XI. Rheumatoid Factors and Cryoglobulins

XII. Human Monoclonal Proteins with Antibody Activity toward Antigens Other than IgG

XIII. Mouse Myeloma Proteins with Antibody Activity

XIV. Summary of Evidence Relating Myeloma Proteins with Specific Binding Activity to Induced Antibodies

XV. Unusual Immunological Cross-Reactions

XVI. Antibody Activity in Crystallized Fab' Fragments

XVII. Induction of Homogeneous Antibody after Adoptive Transfer of Limited Numbers of Cells


11 Idiotypic Specificities of Immunoglobulins

I. Introduction

II. Idiotypic Specificities in Human Monoclonal Proteins

III. Idiotypic Specificities in Rabbit and Human Antibody Populations

IV. Idiotypic Cross-Reactions among Rabbit Antibodies

V. Idiotypic Cross-Reactions among Antibodies and Myeloma Proteins of Inbred Mice

VI. Evidence Based on Idiotypic Specificity for Limited Heterogeneity of Normal Antibody Populations

VII. Persistence and Changes of Antibody Populations during Prolonged Immunization

VIII. Shared Idiotypic Determinants in Rabbit Antibodies or Human Myeloma Proteins Belonging to Different Classes

IX. Localization of Idiotypic Determinants

X. Cross-Reactions of Antudiotypic Antibodies with Nonspecific Immunoglobulins

XI. Suppression of Idiotypic Specificities

XII. Production of Antudiotypic Antibodies within the Same Strain of Mouse; Antitumor Activity of Antimyeloma Protein Antibodies

XIII. Production of Antudiotypic Antibodies by an Animal against Its Own Antibodies


12 Theories of the Genetic Control of Diversity of Antibodies

I. Introduction

II. RNA-DNA Hybridization

III. Basic Premises Relevant to Theories of Antibody Diversity

IV. Theories of Antibody Diversity

V. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Various Theories

VI. Repeated Occurrence of Monoclonal Proteins with Identical

V Regions




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© Academic Press 1975
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Alfred Nisonoff

John E. Hopper

Susan B. Spring

About the Editor

F. J. Dixon

Henry G. Kunkel

Affiliations and Expertise

The Rockefeller University New York, New York

Ratings and Reviews