The Antibody Molecule

The Antibody Molecule

1st Edition - January 1, 1975

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  • Authors: Alfred Nisonoff, John E. Hopper, Susan B. Spring
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483273853

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The Antibody Molecule reviews the literature leading to current knowledge of the structure of immunoglobulins. The book begins by outlining some of the basic structural characteristics of immunoglobulins without citing the references on which the information is based. Separate chapters follow covering the chemical nature of the active site of an antibody molecule and mechanisms of interaction with hapten; the general structural features and properties of the various classes of human immunoglobulin; and amino acid sequences of human and mouse L chains and of human and rabbit H chains. Subsequent chapters deal with the evolution of the immunoglobulin classes; special properties of mouse, guinea pig, rabbit, and horse immunoglobulins; idiotypic specificities of immunglobulins; and the genetic control of antibodies. This book is meant for immunologists who have not personally observed the development of this exciting period in the history of immunology. It will also provide useful supplemental reading for the serious student or investigator who wishes to become familiar with the nature of the antibody molecule, its genetic control, and mode of action.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1 General Structural Features of Immunoglobulin Molecules; Myeloma Proteins

    Myeloma and Bence Jones Proteins



    2 Nature of the Active Site of an Antibody Molecule and the Mechanism of Antibody-Hapten Interactions

    I. Inhibition of Precipitation by Haptens and Chemical Modification as Probes for Antibody Specificity

    II. Specificity of Antibodies to Synthetic Polypeptides

    III. Stabilization of the Antibody Molecule by Interaction with Hapten

    IV. Induction of Optical Activity in Hapten Bound to Antibody

    V. The Question of Conformational Changes Induced in Antibodies upon Interaction with Antigen or Hapten

    VI. Rates and Energetic Aspects of Antigen-Antibody Reactions

    VII. Affinity Labeling of Antibody Molecules or Myeloma Proteins with Antibody Activity


    3 Human Immunoglobulins

    I. General Structural Properties

    II. Kappa and Lambda Chains

    III. IgG and Its Subclasses

    IV. Structure and Properties of Human IgM

    V. Structure and Properties of Human IgA

    VI. IgE

    VII. IgD

    VIII. ß2-Microglobulin (ß2m)

    IX. Rheumatoid Factors


    4 Amino Acid Sequences in Human Immunoglobulins and in Mouse Light Chains

    I. Introduction

    II. Numbering System

    III. Amino Acid Sequences in Human L Chains

    IV. Amino Acid Sequences in L Chains of the Mouse

    V. Common Evolutionary Origin of K and A Chains of Human and Mouse Origin

    VI. Amino Acid Sequences in Rabbit K Chains

    VII. Amino Acid Sequences in Human and Rabbit H Chains

    VIII. Amino Acid Sequence of ß2-Microglobulin

    IX. Amyloidosis

    X. Carbohydrate in Immunoglobulins


    5 The Three-Dimensional Structure of Immunoglobulins

    I. X-Ray Crystallography

    II. Physicochemical Investigations Relating to Three-Dimensional Structure


    6 Properties and Interactions of the Light and Heavy Chains of Immunoglobulins

    I. Introduction

    II. Separation of Light and Heavy Chains

    III. Solubility and Conformational Properties of the Isolated Chains

    IV. Antibody Activity in Isolated Chains and in Recombinants of Heavy and Light Chains

    V. Interaction of VL or CL Segments of Light Chains with Intact Heavy Chains

    VI. Stability of Fragments Consisting Only of V Domains

    VII. Effect of Hapten on the Strength of Interaction of H and L Chains

    VIII. Contribution to Antibody Activity of Isolated H and L Chains

    IX. Half-Molecules of IgG


    7 Evolution of the Immunoglobulins

    I. Introduction

    II. Universality of IgM-Like Molecules in Vertebrates

    III. Immunoglobulins of Fish

    IV. Immunoglobulins of Amphibia

    V. Immunoglobulins of Reptiles

    VI. Immunoglobulins of Birds; Appearance of IgA

    VII. Carbohydrate Content of Immunoglobulins from Various Species on the Phylogenetic Scale

    VIII. Phylogeny of IgA, IgE, IgG Subclasses, Light Chain Types, and the VHm Subgroup

    IX. Selective Advantages in the Evolution of Immunoglobulin Classes


    8 Immunoglobulins of the Rabbit, Mouse, Guinea Pig, and Horse

    I. Introduction

    II. General Considerations

    III. Antigeiiic Relationships

    IV. Homocy to tropic Antibodies: IgE

    V. Rabbit Immunoglobulins

    VI. Guinea Pig Immunoglobulins

    VII. Mouse Immunoglobulins

    VIII. Horse Immunoglobulins

    IX. Passive Cutaneous Anaphylactic Reactions in Guinea Pigs Mediated by Heterologous Immunoglobulins


    9 Allotypes of Rabbit, Human, and Mouse Immunoglobulins

    I. Introduction

    II. Rabbit Allotypes

    III. Human Allotypes

    IV. Mouse Allotypes

    V. Suppression of Allotypic Specificities


    10 Homogeneous Antibodies and Myeloma Proteins with Antibody Activity

    I. Introduction

    II. Homogeneous Antistreptococcal Antibodies

    III. Homogeneous Antibodies to Pneumococcal Polysaccharides

    IV. Homogeneous Antihapten Antibodies

    V. Relationship of Structure of Antigen to the Degree of Heterogeneity of Antibody

    VI. Restricted Heterogeneity of Human Antibodies to Polysaccharide Antigens

    VII. Influence of Genetic Factors on the Magnitude of the Response of Rabbits to Streptococcal Antigens

    VIII. Influence of Genetic Factors on the Heterogeneity of Rabbit Antibodies Produced against Streptococcal Antigens

    IX. Amino Acid Sequences of Homogeneous Rabbit Antibodies

    X. Cold Agglutinins from Patients with Chronic Cold Hemagglutinin Syndrome (CHS)

    XI. Rheumatoid Factors and Cryoglobulins

    XII. Human Monoclonal Proteins with Antibody Activity toward Antigens Other than IgG

    XIII. Mouse Myeloma Proteins with Antibody Activity

    XIV. Summary of Evidence Relating Myeloma Proteins with Specific Binding Activity to Induced Antibodies

    XV. Unusual Immunological Cross-Reactions

    XVI. Antibody Activity in Crystallized Fab' Fragments

    XVII. Induction of Homogeneous Antibody after Adoptive Transfer of Limited Numbers of Cells


    11 Idiotypic Specificities of Immunoglobulins

    I. Introduction

    II. Idiotypic Specificities in Human Monoclonal Proteins

    III. Idiotypic Specificities in Rabbit and Human Antibody Populations

    IV. Idiotypic Cross-Reactions among Rabbit Antibodies

    V. Idiotypic Cross-Reactions among Antibodies and Myeloma Proteins of Inbred Mice

    VI. Evidence Based on Idiotypic Specificity for Limited Heterogeneity of Normal Antibody Populations

    VII. Persistence and Changes of Antibody Populations during Prolonged Immunization

    VIII. Shared Idiotypic Determinants in Rabbit Antibodies or Human Myeloma Proteins Belonging to Different Classes

    IX. Localization of Idiotypic Determinants

    X. Cross-Reactions of Antudiotypic Antibodies with Nonspecific Immunoglobulins

    XI. Suppression of Idiotypic Specificities

    XII. Production of Antudiotypic Antibodies within the Same Strain of Mouse; Antitumor Activity of Antimyeloma Protein Antibodies

    XIII. Production of Antudiotypic Antibodies by an Animal against Its Own Antibodies


    12 Theories of the Genetic Control of Diversity of Antibodies

    I. Introduction

    II. RNA-DNA Hybridization

    III. Basic Premises Relevant to Theories of Antibody Diversity

    IV. Theories of Antibody Diversity

    V. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Various Theories

    VI. Repeated Occurrence of Monoclonal Proteins with Identical

    V Regions



Product details

  • No. of pages: 558
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1975
  • Published: January 1, 1975
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483273853

About the Authors

Alfred Nisonoff

John E. Hopper

Susan B. Spring

About the Editors

F. J. Dixon

Henry G. Kunkel

Affiliations and Expertise

The Rockefeller University New York, New York

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