The Anterior Cruciate Ligament

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament

Reconstruction and Basic Science

2nd Edition - May 31, 2017

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  • Author: Chadwick Prodromos
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323497398
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323389624

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Now in a combined resource that includes print, eBook, and video, The Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Reconstruction and Basic Science, 2nd Edition, by Dr. Chadwick Prodromos, provides the expert guidance you need to effectively select the right procedure and equipment, prevent complications, and improve outcomes for every patient. Written and edited by world leaders in hamstring, allograft, and bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) ACL reconstruction, this revised reference is a must-have resource for the full range of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction techniques, plus fixation devices, rehabilitation, revision ACLR surgery, and much more!

Table of Contents

  • Section 1: Anatomy and Genetics of ACL Injury

    1. Anatomy and Biomechanics of the ACL

    2. Genetic Influences on ACL Injury

    3. The Association Between ACL Tear and Femoro-Aceteblar Impingement

    Section 2: Mechanism, Incidence and Epidemiology of ACL Injury

    4. Mechanisms of Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

    5. Risk and Gender Factors for Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    6. Risk of ACL injury as a function of type of Playing Surface

    7. The Incidence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury as a Function of Gender, Sport, and Injury-Reduction Programs

    8. Analysis of ACL Injury Prevention Programs for the Female Athlete

    Section 3: Diagnosis and Treatment of ACL tears

    9. Diagnosis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear

    10. MRI for the diagnosis and treatment of ACL tears

    11. Nonoperative Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficient Patients

    Section 4: Economics of ACLR

    12. The Economics of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear and Reconstruction

    13. An Economic Analysis of ACL Tear Treatment: 1. Reconstruction versus Rehabilitation and 2. Early Reconstruction versus Rehabilitation with Optional Late Reconstruction

    Section 5: Graft Mechanical Properties

    14. The Relative Strengths of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Autografts and Allografts

    15. Comparative and Morphological Analysis of Commonly Used Autografts for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with the Native ACL: An Electron, Microscopic and Morphologic Study

    Section 6: Graft Choices

    16. The Case for the Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Autograft with ACL Reconstruction

    17. The Case for Hamstring ACL Reconstruction

    18. The case for Quadriceps Autograft

    19. Current Status on Synthetic Grafts

    Section 7: Graft Harvest Techniques, Preparation and Complications

    20. Hamstring Harvest Technique for ACL Reconstruction

    21. Posterior Mini-Incision Hamstring Harvest Approach for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    22. Technique for Harvesting a Mid-Third Patella Tendon Graft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    23. The Central Quadriceps Free Tendon for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    24. Hamstring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with a Quadrupled or Tripled Semitendinosus Tendon Graft

    25. 5- and 6-Strand Hamstring Tendon Graft Preparation for Single-Bundle Hamstring ACL Reconstruction

    26. Harvest Complications and Donor Site Morbidity: Hamstring Grafts

    27. Harvest Complications and Morbidity of Patellar Tendon Harvest for BPTB ACL Reconstruction

    28. Harvest Complications and Donor Site Morbidity: Quadriceps Grafts

    29. Chemical sterilization techniques for Allograft preparation for ACLR

    30. Radiation Sterilization techniques for Allograft preparation for ACLR

    31. Hamstring Regeneration Following Harvest for ACL Reconstruction: A Review of the Current Literature

    32. Regeneration of the Donor Site After Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Graft Harvest for ACL Reconstruction, and Possible Enhanced Regeneration Using Platelet Rich Plasma

    Section 8: Reconstruction Techniques

    33. Pearls for ACL Reconstruction

    34. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Hamstrings in Press-Fit Technique Without Hardware

    35. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Quadriceps Tendon Autograft

    36. Three Portal Technique for Anatomic Single-Bundle ACL Reconstruction

    37. Anatomical Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Procedure Using the Semitendinosus and Gracilis Tendons

    38. Anatomical Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with a Semitendinosus Hamstring Tendon Graft

    39. Anatomic Double-Bundle Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    40. Augmented Grafts: Synthetic/Allograft/Autograft

    41. A Systematic Review of Single vs Double Bundle Results

    Section 9: Principles of Tunnel Formation

    42. Trans Tibial Tunnel Drilling of the Femoral Tunnel for Anatomic Single Bundle ACL Reconstruction

    43. The Anteromedial Portal for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    44. Intraoperative Fluoroscopy for ACL Tunnel Placement

    45. ACL All-Inside Retroconstruction: Single- and Double-Bundle Techniques

    46. SwitchCut all inside tunnel formation

    47. Use of the Pinpoint Guide System for ACL Reconstruction

    48. Femoral Tunnel Placement to Restore Normal Knee Laxity After ACL Reconstrution

    49. A Description of the Direct Femoral Attachment of the ACL: Implication for Femoral Tunnel Placement in Reconstruction

    50. Use of Versitomic Flexible Reamer System for ACL Reconstruction

    Section 10: Control of Pain in ACLR

    51. Risks and Benefits of Femoral Nerve Block for ACLR

    52. Saphenous Nerve Block for ACL Reconstruction

    53. Efficacy of Cryotherapy for postoperative ACL Reconstruction Analgesia

    54. Chondrolysis: Risk Benefit Analysis of "Caine" Local Anesthetics for ACL Reconstruction

    55. Use of Preoperative Gabapentin for Postoperative Pain Relief After ACL Reconstruction

    56. Obturator and Sciatica Nerve Block for ACL Reconstruction

    Section 11: Additional Surgical Considerations

    57. Notch Anatomy and Notchplasty

    58. Computer-Assisted Navigation for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    59. Sparing the ACL Remnant: Is it worth the hassle?

    60. Graft Tensioning in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    61. The Use of CO2 instead of fluid in Arthroscopic ACL Reconstruction

    Section 12: Fixation Biomechanics

    62. Intratunnel ACL Graft Fixation

    63. Biomechanical Considerations of Suspensory Cortical Fixation Devices

    Section 13: Soft-Tissue Graft Cortical Fixation

    64. Endobutton Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Femoral Fixation

    65. Cortical Screw Post Femoral Fixation Using Whipstitches, Fabric Loop or Endobutton: the Universal Salvage

    66. Arthrex Tightrope Fixation of a Soft Tissue Graft

    67. RigidLoop Femoral Fixation Techniques

    68. MedShape Exo Shape Fixation

    69. Biomet ToggleLoc

    70. EZLoc : Optimizing Femoral Fixation for Soft Tissue Graft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Section 14: Soft-Tissue Graft Interference Screw Fixation

    71. Hamstring Tendon Interference Screw Fixation

    72. Cayenne Aperfix Fixation

    73. Milagro Advance (Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate, Poly Lactide Co-Glycolide Biocomposite) Interference Screw for ACL Reconstruction

    74. Hamstring ACL Reconstruction with BioIntraFix Femoral Fastener

    75. ComposiTCP Fixation

    76. Bioabsorbable Versus Metal Interference Screws: Adverse Events and Clinical Results

    77. Use of TunneLoc for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    78. Improving Biodegradable Interference Screw Properties by Combining Polymers

    Section 15: Soft-Tissue Graft Tibial Fixation

    79. Whipstitch-Post Tibial Fixaton for ACL Reconstruction

    80. WasherLoc: Optimizing Tibial Fixation of Soft Tissue Grafts used for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    81. Hamstring Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with INTRAFIX and BioINTRAFIX Tibial Fastener Systems

    Section 16: BTB Graft Fixation

    82. Interference Screw Fixation in Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone ACL Reconstruction

    83. Use of the Tightrope BTB for ACL Reconstruction

    84. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Mini-Arthrotomy Technique with Either an Ipsilateral or a Contralateral Autogenous Patellar Tendon Graft

    85. ACL Reconstruction using ENDOBUTTON CL BTB Fixation System: For both Antero-Medial and Transtibial Reaming of the Femoral Tunnel

    Section 17: Graft Healing and Ligamentization

    86. Graft Remodeling and Ligamentization After ACL Reconstruction

    87. Graft-tunnel healing

    88. Graft Length in the Tunnel in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Section 18: Revision ACLR

    89. Revision ACL Reconstruction Using Autologous Hamstring Tendons

    90. Hamstring Four to Six Strand Double Bundle Graft for Revision or High Risk Primary ACL Reconstruction

    91. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Autograft

    92. Revision ACL Reconstruction: Management of Femoral Tunnel Malposition

    93. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction – the MARS Study

    Section 19: ACLR in Skeletally Immature Patients

    94. Techniques and Complications of Transphyseal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Skeletally Immature Patient

    95. An Overview of the Diagnosis and Treatment of the Torn ACL in the Skeletally Immature Athlete

    96. Operative Versus Nonoperative Treatment and Timing of Surgery in Skeletally Immature Patients with ACL Tear

    Section 20: ACL Partial Tears

    97. Partial Tear of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Management with One Bundle Augmentation Technique

    98. Acute ACL Rupture: A Biological Approach Through Primary ACL Repair; Augmentation with Bone Marrow Stimulation; Growth Factor Injection

    99. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction of Partial Tears: Isolated Single Bundle Reconstruction

    100. Sonographically Guided Anterior Cruciate (ACL) Injection: Technique and Potential Use for the Treatment of Partial ACL Tear

    Section 21: Associated Injuries of the Bone, Ligament, Meniscus, Cartilage and Nerve

    101. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Combined with Medial Collateral Ligament, Posterior Cruciate Ligament, and/or Lateral Collateral Ligament Injury

    102. Treatment of Meniscus Tears with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    103. Meniscal repair with ACLR

    104. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Combined with High-Tibial Osteotomy, Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation, Microfracture, Osteochondral, and/or Meniscal Allograft Transplantation

    105. ACL-Deficiency in the Varus-Angulated Knee: Diagnosis, Surgical Techniques, Clinical Outcomes

    106. W6: The Treatment of Combined Posterolateral Knee Injures and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears

    107. ACLR Related Bone Contusions: Association with Intrarticular Injury, Pain and Outcomes

    108. Ganglion Cyst

    Section 22: ACLR and UKA

    109. Indications for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in ACL Deficient Patients undergoing Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty

    110. Techniques for Combined ACLR and UKA

    Section 23: Rehabilitation

    111. ACL Strain Behavior During Rehabilitation Exercises

    112. Principles of ACL Rehabilitation

    113. The Stability-Conservative ACL Reconstruction Rehabilitation Protocol

    114. Proprioception and ACL Reconstruction

    115. Functional Bracing for ACL Injuries: Current State and Future Direction

    116. Prehabilitation Before ACLR

    Section 24: Outcomes After ACLR

    117. Stability Results After ACL Reconstruction

    118. Health Related Quality of Life After ACLR

    119. Allografts Have Higher Failure Rates Than Autografts in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Young, Active Patients

    120. Factors Associated With the Increased Allograft Failure Rate In ACL Reconstruction

    121. Are Articular Cartilage Lesions and Meniscus Tears Predictive of IKDC, KOOS, and Marx Activity Level Outcomes After ACLR

    122. Arthrosis Following ACL Tear and Reconstruction

    123. Criteria for Return to Sports After ACLR

    124. A comparison of the Standardized Rating Forms for Evaluation of ACL Injured or Reconstructed Patients

    Section 25: Patient Factors that Contribute to Success or Failure

    125. ACLR Outcomes as a Function of Age

    126. BMI and Weight Effects on the Results of ACLR

    127. The Effects of Smoking on ACLR Outcomes

    128. Psychological Predictors of ACLR Outcomes

    Section 26: Return to Sports

    129. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Patients with Hereditary Abnormalities Involving Connective Tissue

    130. Performance and Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Skiers and Snowboarders

    131. Return to play and future ACL Injury Risk After ACL reconstruction in Soccer Players

    132. Return to American Football After ACL Reconstruction

    Section 27: Complications

    133. Infections in ACL Surgery

    134. Osteoporosis After ACL Reconstruction?

    135. Tunnel Widening After ACL Reconstruction

    136. Numbness/Saphenous Nerve

    137. Hardware Complications After ACL Reconstruction

    138. Vascular Complications After ACL Reconstruction and DVT prophylaxis

    139. Fracture Complications After ACL Reconstruction

    140. Anterior Knee Problems After ACL Reconstruction

    141. Stiffness: Prevention and Treatment

    142. Treatment of Tibial Eminence Fractures: A Systematic Review

    Section 28: Gait Analysis and ExtraArticular Reconstruction

    143. Gait Analysis in ACL Deficient and Reconstructed Knees

    144. Extra-Articular Tenodesis and ACL Recontruction: Techniques and Outcomes

    Section 29: Tissue Engineering and the Future

    145. Growth Factors and Other New Methods for Graft-Healing Enhancement

    146. The Future Possibilities of Biologic ACLR

Product details

  • No. of pages: 624
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: May 31, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323497398
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323389624

About the Author

Chadwick Prodromos

Affiliations and Expertise

Medical Director, Illinois Orthoapedics and Sports Medicine Centers; Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University College of Medicine, Chicago, IL

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