The Agronomy and Economy of Turmeric and Ginger

The Agronomy and Economy of Turmeric and Ginger

The Invaluable Medicinal Spice Crops

1st Edition - February 20, 2013

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  • Author: K.P. Prabhakaran Nair
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123948243
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123948014

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Turmeric has been used as a medicine, a condiment, and a dye since at least 600 B.C., while ginger has been used extensively throughout history for its medicinal purposes. The Agronomy and Economy of Turmeric and Ginger brings these two important plants together in one reference book, explaining their history, production techniques, and nutritional and medicinal properties in detail. This book is intuitively organized by plant and use, allowing quick access to information. It puts the uniquely Indian use and history of turmeric and ginger plants into a global context of production and economic aspects. It explores the plants from a botanical perspective, and goes into details of their chemical composition as well. Rounding out the book are chapters on disease and pest control issues. The book is a valuable resource for those involved in the production and marketing of these plants, as well as those looking for more information on the medicinal and nutritional properties of turmeric and ginger.

Key Features

  • The first book to bring together extensive information about turmeric and ginger
  • Incorporates medicinal, nutritional and agricultural aspects of the two plants
  • Offers a global perspective


Students and researchers in agriculture, industry, policy planners and those involved in global pharmacopoeia.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication


    1. Turmeric: Origin and History

    Area and Production

    Global Turmeric Scenario


    2. The Botany of Turmeric

    Origin and Distribution

    Turmeric Taxonomy

    Taxonomic Investigations in Curcuma

    Use of Isoenzymes

    Molecular Markers

    Morphology of Turmeric

    Germination of Seed and Establishment of Seedling Progenies

    The Curcuma Cytology

    The Curcuma Karyomorphology

    The Curcuma Meiotic Investigations

    The Curcuma Nuclear DNA Content

    Chromosome Number in Curcuma Seedling Progenies

    Turmeric Crop Improvement

    Clonal Selection in Turmeric

    Turmeric Improvement by Seedling Selection

    Mutation and Selection Induced Crop Improvement in Turmeric

    Hybridization and Selection in Turmeric


    3. Genetics of Turmeric

    The Diversity of Turmeric Species

    Curcuma spp.—Its Characterization

    Molecular Characterization

    The Diversity in Turmeric Cultivars

    Genetic Variability in Turmeric

    The Conservation and Management of Turmeric Genetic Resources

    Biodiversity and GIS Technology

    Turmeric and Intellectual Property Rights

    Controversial Patent Cases Involving Turmeric and Traditional Knowledge


    4. The Chemistry of Turmeric

    Turmeric Oil

    Turmeric Oleoresin

    Turmeric Turmerones

    Turmeric Curcuminoids

    Specific Beneficial Properties of Curcuminoids

    Extraction and Estimation of Curcumin

    Biosynthesis of Curcuminoids


    5. The Biotechnology of Turmeric

    Tissue Culture

    Explants and Media

    Callus Induction

    In Vitro Screening

    Exchange of Turmeric Germplasm and In Vitro Conservation


    In Vitro Mutagenesis

    In Vitro Pollination


    Molecular Markers

    Early Flowering

    Genetic Transformation


    6. The Agronomy of Turmeric

    Soil and Climate Suitability

    Propagation of the Crop


    Crop Season


    Plant Geometry

    Intercultivation Practices


    Storage of Seed Rhizome


    7. Nutrition and Nutrient Management in Turmeric

    Soil Tests and Nutrient Availability

    Nutrient Requirement and Uptake

    Manuring of Turmeric

    Effect of Micronutrients on Turmeric Production

    The Role of Organic Manures in Turmeric Production

    Organic Farming


    The Role of Growth Regulators in Turmeric Production


    8. Turmeric Entomology

    Major Insect Pests

    Rhizome Scale (Aspidiella hartii Ckll.)

    Other Insect Pests

    Storage Pests of Turmeric

    Other Insect Pests


    9. Turmeric Nematology

    Nematode Pests of Turmeric

    Symptoms of Nematode Infestation

    Economic Consequences of Nematode Infestation

    Field Management of Nematode Infestation

    Preventive Measures

    Planting Nematode-Resistant Lines

    Chemical Control of Nematodes

    Biological Control of Turmeric Nematodes


    10. Diseases of Turmeric

    Major Diseases of Turmeric

    Minor Diseases of Turmeric

    Bacterial Diseases of Turmeric

    Storage Diseases of Turmeric


    11. Harvesting and Postharvest Management of Turmeric

    Harvesting of Turmeric

    Washing the Rhizomes

    Processing of the Rhizomes

    Grading of Turmeric

    Storage of Turmeric Rhizomes

    General Composition

    Quality Specifications of Turmeric

    Value Additions in Turmeric

    Newer Methods of Value Addition to Turmeric


    12. Neutraceutical Properties of Turmeric

    The Principal Compounds in Turmeric

    Medicinal Properties of Turmeric

    Antioxidant Property

    Chemopreventive and Bioprotectant Properties

    Additional Therapeutic Properties of Turmeric

    Additional Curative Properties of Turmeric


    13. The Ornamental Curcuma

    Description of Species

    Genetic Diversity


    Cultural Investigations in Curcuma

    Growth Regulators

    Photoperiodic Studies

    Nutrition of Ornamental Curcuma

    Tissue Culture in Ornamental Curcuma

    Storage of Ornamental Curcuma Rhizome

    Postharvest Physiology of Ornamental Curcuma


    14. Turmeric in Ayurveda

    Nomenclature of Turmeric

    Turmeric Varieties Used in Ayurveda

    Pharmacological Properties of Turmeric

    Use of Turmeric in Ayurveda

    Excellent Turmeric-Based Ayurvedic Formulations

    The Multifaceted Uses of Turmeric in Ayurveda

    Corroboration with Scientific Evidence


    15. The Agronomy and Economy of Ginger

    Introduction—A Peek into the History of Ginger

    India and Ginger

    Global Centers of Ginger Cultivation

    Uses of Ginger

    Botany of Ginger

    The Morphology and Anatomy of Ginger

    Rhizome Anatomy

    Root Apical Organization

    Ontogeny of Buds, Roots, and Phloem

    Anatomical Features of Ginger in Comparison to Related Taxa

    Microscopic Features of Ginger Powder

    Floral Anatomy

    Floral Biology



    Cytology, Cytogenetics, and Palynology

    Physiology of Ginger

    Genetic Resources

    Crop Improvement

    Evaluation and Selection for Quality

    Breeding Strategies


    16. The Chemistry of Ginger

    The Composition of Ginger Rhizome

    Extraction, Separation, and Identification Methods

    Analytical and Isolation Methods

    Chemical Ionization Technique

    Miscellaneous Methods

    Oleoresins: Gingerols, Shogaols, and Related Compounds

    Synthesis and Biosynthesis of Pungent Compounds of Ginger Rhizomes

    Essential Oils of Ginger

    Characteristic Flavor and Odor in Ginger

    Properties of Ginger

    Processing of Ginger

    Formulations and Uses


    17. Ginger Physiology


    Carbon Assimilation and Photosynthesis

    Light and Physiological Processes

    Water Stress and Mulching

    Growth Regulators


    18. Cropping Zones and Production Technology

    Climatic Requirements

    Soil Requirements

    Cropping Zones

    Production Technology


    19. The Biotechnology of Ginger

    Tissue Culture

    Direct Regeneration for Aerial Stem

    Anther Culture

    Inflorescence Culture and In Vivo Development of Fruit


    Plant Regeneration from Callus Culture

    Suspension Culture

    Protoplast Culture

    In Vitro Selection/Induction of Systemic Resistance

    Somaclonal Variation

    Production of Secondary Metabolites

    In Vitro Polyploidy

    Field Evaluation of Tissue-Cultured Plants

    Germplasm Conservation

    Synthetic Seeds

    Molecular Markers and Diversity Studies

    Molecular Phylogeny of Zingiber

    Application of Molecular Markers

    Genetic Transformation


    20. Ginger Nutrition

    Uptake and Requirement

    Organic and Integrated Nutrient Management


    21. The Diseases of Ginger

    Diseases Caused by Oomycetes and True Fungi

    Diseases Caused by Bacterial Pathogens

    Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Diseases Caused by Nematodes


    22. The Insect Pests of Ginger and Their Control

    Shoot Borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guen.)

    Rhizome Scale (Aspidiella hartii Ckll.)

    White Grubs (Holotrichia spp.)

    Minor Insect Pests

    Nematode Pests of Ginger


    23. The Postharvest and Industrial Processing of Ginger

    Harvest Maturity


    The Incidence of Aflatoxin

    Chemical Composition of Ginger

    Ginger Powder

    Distillation of the Volatile Oil

    Composition of ginger oil

    Organoleptic Properties

    Oil of Green (Fresh) Ginger

    Ginger Oil from Scrapings

    Oleoresin Ginger

    Preserved Ginger

    Uses of Ginger and Ginger Products

    Uses of Ginger Oil and Oleoresin


    24. Production, Marketing, and Economics of Ginger

    Area Expansion







    World Trade



    Market Opportunities

    Competitiveness of Indian Ginger Industry

    Risks and Uncertainty


    25. Pharmacology and Nutraceutical Uses of Ginger

    Antimicrobial Property of Ginger

    Antifungal Activity of Ginger

    Larvicidal Activity of Ginger

    Anthelmintic Activity of Ginger

    Insecticidal Property of Ginger

    Pharmacological Studies on Ginger Extracts and Active Components

    Medicinal Uses of Ginger

    Ginger in Indian System of Medicine

    Experimental and Clinical Investigations

    Other Properties

    Ginger in Chinese and Japanese Systems of Medicine

    Ginger in Traditional Medical Care in Other Countries


    26. Ginger as a Spice and Flavorant

    Forms of Ginger Used in Cooking

    Ginger as a Flavorant

    Ginger as a Deodorizing Agent

    Frequency Patterning Analysis of Ginger

    Ginger as a Flavorant

    Ginger as an Antioxidant

    Antimicrobial Activity


    27. Additional Economically Important Ginger Species

    General Features

    Wild Ginger


Product details

  • No. of pages: 544
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: February 20, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123948243
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123948014

About the Author

K.P. Prabhakaran Nair

K.P. Prabhakaran Nair

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Visiting Scientist, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India

Ratings and Reviews

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  • Gert-JanLieffering Mon Feb 25 2019

    Agronomy of Ginger and tumuric

    Good overview